Condé


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Condé

(kôNdā`), family name of a cadet branch of the French royal house of BourbonBourbon
, European royal family, originally of France; a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma.
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. The name was first borne by Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, 1530–69, Protestant leader and general. He fought the Spanish at Metz (1552) and Saint-Quentin (1557) but won little favor at court. After his conversion to Protestantism he became involved in the Conspiracy of Amboise (1560; see Amboise, conspiracy ofAmboise, conspiracy of,
1560, plot of the Huguenots (French Protestants) and the house of Bourbon to usurp the power of the Guise family, which virtually ruled France during the reign of the young Francis II.
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) and escaped execution only through King Francis II's premature death. He was restored to favor by the regent, Catherine de' Medici, but took command of the Huguenots in the Wars of Religion (see Religion, Wars ofReligion, Wars of,
1562–98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars.

The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment (see Huguenots).
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) and was captured at Dreux (1562). Released in 1563, he once more took up arms in 1567 and was killed at the battle of Jarnac.

His son, Henri I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, 1552–88, was also a Huguenot general. Henri II de Bourbon, prince de Condé, 1588–1646, French political leader, son of Henri I, was forced to leave France (1609) because of the attentions paid his wife by King Henry IV. He returned in 1610 and in 1615 formed a conspiracy against Concino Concini, who dominated the government of the regent, Marie de' MediciMarie de' Medici
, 1573–1642, queen of France, second wife of King Henry IV and daughter of Francesco de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany. She was married to Henry in 1600. After his assassination (1610) she became regent for her son Louis XIII.
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, but he was bought off and later imprisoned (1616–19). Afterward he made his peace with the government, fought against the Protestants in the religious wars, and in 1643 became a member of the council of regency for King Louis XIV. His elder son, Louis II (see Condé, Louis II de Bourbon, prince deCondé, Louis II de Bourbon, prince de,
1621–86, French general, called the Great Condé; son of Henri II de Condé. Among his early victories in the Thirty Years War were those of Rocroi (1643), Freiburg (1644), Nördlingen (1645), and Lens (1648).
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) was known as the Great Condé. Another son, Armand, founded the cadet branch of ContiConti
, cadet branch of the French royal house of Bourbon. Although the title of prince of Conti was created in the 16th cent., the founder of the continuous line was Armand de Bourbon, prince de Conti,
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. Both sons and a daughter, Mme de LonguevilleLongueville, Anne Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé, duchesse de
, 1619–79, daughter of Henry II de Condé and sister of the Great Condé, Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Condé.
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, were leaders in the FrondeFronde
, 1648–53, series of outbreaks during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parlement of Paris (the chief judiciary body) to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of
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.

Louis II's great-grandson, Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé, 1736–1818, fought with distinction in the Seven Years War. At the beginning of the French Revolution he emigrated and fomented counterrevolutionary action. He formed a corps known as the army of Condé, which he allied with the Austrians. In 1797 he offered his services to Russia; in 1800 he entered English pay, but he was obliged to dissolve his army in 1801. He returned to France at the Restoration.

His son, Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé, 1756–1830, followed his father into exile, fought in his army, and headed an unsuccessful revolt in the Vendée during the Hundred Days. He died, probably by suicide. His son was the ill-fated Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc d'EnghienEnghien, Louis Antoine Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc d'
, 1772–1804, French émigré; son of Louis Henri Joseph de Condé (see under Condé, family).
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.

Bibliography

See H. E. P. L. d'Aumale, History of the Princes de Condé in the XVIth and XVIIth Centuries (1863–64, tr. 1872).