MANU will (1) obtain the spatial variability of new particle formation (NPF) events in different open ocean areas, (2) elucidate the chemical composition of NPF events, (3) associate NPF events with biological processes and (4) interpret how NPF events affect the existing aerosol and its overall Cloud Condensation Nuclei
Raymond Cipriano, Senior Scientist for Industry/University center for bio-surfaces tested & studied HealthWay's products by using a condensation nuclei
counter, known to measure all airborne particles even the smallest viruses.
When condensation nuclei
(assumed to be dust aerosols on Mars) are too rare, condensation is impeded, leaving substantial amounts of excess vapour.
17 Science that there were more cloud condensation nuclei
, along with other measures of aerosols, above regions with a lot of human activity compared with more pristine areas.
Stephen Salter, an engineer at the University of Edinburgh, suggests having ships inject seawater into the atmosphere, where salt particles would serve as extra cloud condensation nuclei
This augments the natural process, where sea salt from the oceans provides water vapor with the cloud condensation nuclei
Solar influence can manifest itself in different ways: fluctuations of solar irradiance (total energy), which has been measured in satellites and related to the sunspot cycle; variability of the ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum, which, in turn, affects the amount of ozone in the stratosphere; and variations in the solar wind that modulate the intensity of cosmic rays, which, upon impact into the Earth's atmosphere, produce cloud condensation nuclei
, affecting cloudiness and, thus, climate.
Other topics under discussion include simulation of fuel consumption and emissions in typical traffic circumstances in Belgium, atmospheric volatile organic compounds in a Portuguese mountain region, and generation of monodisperse aerosols through condensation nuclei
In clouds having their entire depth at temperatures greater than 0[degrees]C, rain may form from the so-called warm rain process, where cloud droplets nucleated upon special aerosol particles (called cloud condensation nuclei
, or CCN) near the base of the cloud grow by condensation as they ascend within the cloud, and once achieving large enough sizes, grow by collection of smaller drops to produce drizzle or raindrops.
The more exhaust particles, the more condensation nuclei
As a result, they did not form cloud condensation nuclei
, as is usually expected in such dust particles, and so they suppressed rainfall and exacerbated the droughts.
Additionally, cloud seeding, a process in which chemical condensation nuclei
are introduced into cloud systems, could increase precipitation by 10-20 percent (Schiller, 1993).