Conditioned Stimulus


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Related to Conditioned Stimulus: unconditioned stimulus, stimulus generalization, classical conditioning, conditioned response, operant conditioning

Conditioned Stimulus

 

a signal that causes a conditioned reflex; it may be any stimulus of an organism’s external or internal environment that is perceived by the sensory organs and that causes excitation in the cerebral cortex.

The conditioned stimulus precedes an unconditioned stimulus or coincides with it. Natural conditioned stimuli are used in unconditioned reinforcement; examples are the sight and smell of food. Artificial conditioned stimuli are more varied and do not have a direct relationship to the properties of the unconditioned stimulus; they become positive or negative conditioned signals only when a conditioned reflex is being developed. Conditioned stimuli that are indirect signals of the food-related, defensive, and sexual reflexes are of great importance in the adaptive behavior of animals.

References in periodicals archive ?
Once the respondent relation is established, repeated occurrences of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus weaken the S-R relation until the conditioned stimulus elicits no response.
In that training session, the conditioned stimulus was a whistle tone, just as in a standard psychological study on classical conditioning.
Via imaging technique, researchers could see that some neurons were activated by the saccharine, or the conditioned stimulus, and the lithium chloride or the unconditioned stimulus activated others.
While Williams correctly described the procedure with the houselight at the end as more analogous to respondent overshadowing than blocking because the houselight was not an established conditioned stimulus, as it presumably was in Williams et al.
Examples of cases where the context acquires conditioned stimulus properties have been systematically demonstrated in research on latent inhibition, extinction, reinstatement and renewal (see Bouton, 1994; Gray, Williams, Fernandez, Ruddle, Good, & Snowden, 2001; Bursch, Hemsley & Joseph, 2004; Nelson & Sanjuan, 2006).
A stable baseline of operant responding was established on a particular schedule of reinforcement, and a conditioned stimulus (CS; established as such via Pavlovian conditioning procedures) was presented during the operant performance to determine its effect on that performance.
They are not considered identical; just as the properties of a conditioned stimulus (and response) are not identical to those of an unconditional stimulus (or reflex).
Facilitation of instrumental behavior by a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus.