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Another possible explanation is that it was the peers who functioned as previously conditioned reinforcers, and that their proximity to the stimuli paired with the neutral stimuli.
If it is the value of the conditioned reinforcer and not its frequency that determines the preference for the alternative that produces it, an interesting prediction follows.
The results showed that the protocol used to condition 2D pictures on pages as conditioned reinforcers for observing responses was effective in significantly accelerating acquisition of mastery of match-to-sample instruction for all three participants.
Drug-seeking behavior and drug-taking rituals are proposed here as behaviors embedded within a heterogeneous operant chain, involving observing behavior, discriminative stimuli, and operant conditioned reinforcers, all of which can be modulated by establishing/motivating operations.
Second, although your nods and smiles now function as a conditioned reinforcer, they will not be generalized: They will only function as reinforcers as long as those edibles are reinforcing, i.
In the latter studies, children for whom adult approvals did not reinforce learning or performance acquired approval as conditioned reinforcers for learning and performance as a function of observing other children receiving approvals while the participants were denied approvals.
Later experiments found additional support for the view that pigeons' choices depend, not on the total delay to food, but only on those portions of the delay to food that are signaled by distinctive conditioned reinforcers.
As DRT has been interpreted (Fantino, 2000; Grace & Savastano, 2000), the value of a conditioned reinforcer is influenced by its context, such that a stimulus that signals a greater percentage improvement to reinforcement should be a more valuable conditioned reinforcer than a stimulus that signals a smaller percentage improvement to reinforcement.
Water-deprivation-produced sign reversal of a conditioned reinforcer based upon dry food.
However, as Colwill and Rescorla (1986) point out, it is the temporal correlation between a neutral stimulus and a primary reinforcer which is necessary to establish the former as a conditioned reinforcer.
Thus, Omino (1993) concluded that "the terminal-link keylight stimulus condition differentially exerts its effect on choice as a conditioned reinforcer in the concurrent-chains procedure" (p.
For example, Delay Reduction Theory (Fantino, Preston, & Dunn, 1993) maintains that the strength of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer depends on the reduction in time to primary reinforcement that is signaled by onset of the stimulus.