c] to estimate the effect of the field of conduction electrons
at the position of a test charge Q.
This is the first time that strong nuclear spin polarisation of a defect atom in a solid is demonstrated at room temperature by spin-polarised conduction electrons
The surface resistance is inversely proportional to the conduction electrons
present in the surface region, ns i.
The conduction electron
density and normal-state conductivity are also one to two orders-of-magnitude higher than either the Nb-based alloys or Bi-based cuprates used in present day wires, contradicting the conventional wisdom that good superconductors are poor conductors because of the strong electron-phonon interaction and at the same time providing encouragement that higher [T.
Au(III)-Pt(III) or Cu(III)-Ni(III) ) will be chosen in order to put into evidence the role of the paramagnetic centres and their possible interplay with conduction electrons
The spin polarization of the conduction electrons
due to Andreev reflection at ferromagnetic/superconductor interface could be determined through the following equation as:
Other theorists countered that the spins of conduction electrons
are usually randomly oriented, with every up spin canceled by a down spin.
By processing the polymer so that millions of chains line up side by side, the Ohio team and others can make materials in which conduction electrons
can almost always avoid dead-ends by hopping to adjacent chains.
Instead of having many conduction electrons
as in a metal, the ceramics appears to have very few -- a meaty paradox for superconductor theorists to demystify.
What leads to superconductivity, despite the repulsion between conduction electrons
, is an effective attractive interaction between those holes as they move around," Goddard says.
Ordinary metals have such conduction electrons
in great abundance, but the new superconducting materials are ceramics with far fewer free electrons in them.
In that case, valence electrons, the electrons that bind the atoms together in the crystal (which are not the same as the conduction electrons
that form electric currents) jump from one atom to another, causing force distortions that bind the conduction electrons