Conferences of the Communist and Workers Parties

Conferences of the Communist and Workers’ Parties

 

a form of maintaining ideological and political ties between Communist and workers’ parties from different countries, and a means of coordinating their activities. The conferences of the Communist and workers’ parties have been held since the Communist International was disbanded, and especially since the late 1950’s.

Under present-day conditions, there are four principal means of maintaining contact and communication between Communist and workers’ parties: international conferences, regional meetings, bilateral negotiations, and scientific conferences and symposia attended by Marxists from various countries.

International conferences. The International Conferences of the Communist and Workers’ Parties, which were held in Moscow in 1957, 1960, and 1969, were very important in the history of the international communist movement. Among the program documents adopted by the Moscow conferences were the Declaration of the Conference of the Representatives of the Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Socialist Countries (1957), the Declaration of the Conference of the Representatives of the Communist and Workers’ Parties (1960), and the Tasks at the Present Stage of the Struggle Against Imperialism and United Action of the Communist and Workers’ Parties and All Anti-Imperialist Forces (1969).

These program documents made an important contribution to the development of Marxist-Leninist theory on a number of major problems, such as the character and content of the world revolutionary process in the present epoch, principles of cooperation among socialist countries, means of preventing world war, the development of peaceful and nonpeaceful forms of the socialist revolution, and the concentration of the main attack of the working class of the developed capitalist countries against the monopolies and against the entire system of state-monopoly capitalism, which guards the interests of the monopolies. The program documents issued by the Moscow conferences also made a major contribution to Marxist-Leninist theory on the tasks of the anti-imperialist democratic revolution; the development of the emancipated countries along noncapitalist lines; the formation of a single, anti-imperialist stream by the merger of the struggle of peoples building socialism and communism, the revolutionary movement of the working class in the capitalist countries, the national liberation struggle of oppressed peoples, and general democratic movements; and the economic and social consequences of the scientific and technological revolution.

The Moscow conferences determined the principled positions of the international communist movement in the present stage of development, as well as the general line of the Communist and workers’ parties in the struggle for peace, democracy, national independence, and socialism. The conferences elaborated the forms of communication and cooperation among the fraternal parties, in conformity with new historical conditions. The Declaration of 1957 states: “After exchanging opinions, the conference participants concluded that under present conditions, in addition to meetings among leading figures and mutual exchange of information on a bilateral basis, it is expedient to hold, as necessary, broader conferences of the Communist and workers’ parties, in order to discuss urgent problems, exchange experience, acquaint each other with views and positions, and coordinate the joint struggle for common goals—peace, democracy, and socialism” (Programmnye dokumenty bor’by za mir, demokratiiu i sotsializm, 1961, p. 20).

The documents of the Moscow conferences elaborate the principles of interrelations among the Communist and workers’ parties in the present stage. Among the most important of these principles are fidelity to Marxism-Leninism; ideological unity based on Marxism-Leninism; and proletarian internationalism, including concern for taking every possible measure to unite the communist movement, coordination of the joint struggle for common goals, and the firm observance by each Communist party of jointly developed assessments and conclusions concerning the general tasks of the struggle against imperialism and for peace, democracy, national independence, and socialism. Another principle of interrelations among the Communist and workers’ parties is the independence and equality of each Marxist-Leninist party—that is, each party elaborates a policy based on concrete conditions in its own country, follows the principles of Marxism-Leninism, and is responsible to the working class and the toiling people of its own country and to the international workers’ and communist movement. Also among the principles of interrelations among Communist and workers’ parties are strict observance of the Leninist norms of party-building and party life; an implacable struggle against all forms of opportunism, both right and “left,” and against revisionism and dogmatism; the settlement of disputes between Communist parties through consultations and comradely meetings; and the refusal to permit factional activity in the ranks of the communist movement. The Declaration of 1960 states: “The resolute defense of the unity of the international communist movement on the basis of the principles of Marxism-Leninism, proletarian internationalism, and refusal to permit any actions that might undermine this unity, is an obligatory condition for victory in the struggle for national independence, democracy, and peace, as well as in the struggle for the successful resolution of the tasks of the socialist revolution and the tasks of building socialism and communism” (ibid., pp. 82–83). The final document of the 1969 International Conference of Communist and Workers’ Parties notes the extraordinary importance of strengthening the unity of the world communist movement: “The international duty of every party is to promote in every way possible the improvement of relations and the development of mutual trust among all parties, to make new efforts that contribute to the strengthening of the unity of the international communist movement. The collective analysis of concrete reality promotes the strengthening of this unity” (Mezhdunarodnoe Soveshchanie kommunisticheskikh i rabochikh partii: Dokumenty i materialy, Moscow, 1969, p. 328).

A meeting of the representatives of 45 Communist and workers’ parties in Budapest in September 1970 focused on current problems in the anti-imperialist struggle.

Socialist countries. Regular conferences of representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries are necessary because these countries play a special role in the communist movement, and the parties confront a number of problems peculiar to these countries. A conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries was held in Moscow on Nov. 14–16, 1957, prior to the international conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties, and was attended by representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of Albania, Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), the German Democratic Republic (GDR), Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR. The delegates considered urgent problems in international relations and in the struggle for peace and socialism, as well as questions of relations among the Communist parties. The Declaration of the Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Socialist Countries, which was adopted at the 1957 conference, became a key program document in the international communist movement. A conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) was held in Moscow from May 20 to May 23, 1958. Representatives of China, the DRV, and the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea participated by invitation, as did representatives of the Mongolian People’s Republic, which joined COMECON in 1962. The conference worked out guiding instructions on questions associated with drawing up long-range plans for the development of the national economies of the COMECON countries.

On Feb. 2–3, 1960, a conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the European socialist countries met in Moscow to discuss and exchange experiences in agricultural development. (Representatives of the Korean Workers’ Party and the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party participated in the conference, but the League of Communists of Yugoslavia did not send a representative.) A meeting of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries was held in Bucharest on June 24,1960. The League of Communists (Yugoslavia) was not represented. The participants exchanged opinions on urgent issues in international relations and reaffirmed their loyalty to the principles of the Declaration of the Communist and Workers’ Parties of the Socialist Countries and the Manifesto on Peace, documents adopted at the Moscow Conferences of 1957. On June 6–7, 1962, a conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the COMECON countries was held in Moscow. (Albania did not send representatives. In the early 1960’s the Communist Party of China and the Albanian Workers’ Party stopped participating in joint actions of the Communist parties of the socialist states.) The conference adopted resolutions aimed at establishing closer economic, scientific, and technological cooperation among socialist countries and at creating more favorable conditions for the expansion and proper development of the international socialist division of labor. Progress in implementing the resolutions of the 1962 conference was reviewed in Moscow on July 24–26,1963, at a conference of the first secretaries of the central committees of the Communist and workers’ parties and the heads of state of the COMECON countries. Various aspects of COMECON activity were discussed. A meeting of the leaders of the Communist and workers’ parties of the COMECON countries was held on July 7, 1966, in Bucharest. The participants expressed their intention of making future efforts for the development of mutual cooperation conform with the principles of complete equality, respect for sovereignty and national interests, mutual advantage, and comradely mutual aid. Opinions on a broad range of issues in international affairs were exchanged during meetings and talks held in Moscow from Oct. 17 to Oct. 22, 1966, by the leaders of the Communist and workers’ parties and the heads of state of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR).

The situation in the Middle East was reviewed in Moscow on June 9, 1967, by participants in a meeting of the leaders of the Communist and workers’ parties and the heads of state of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, the USSR, and Yugoslavia). A declaration adopted at the meeting condemned Israel’s aggression against the Arab countries and demanded the immediate cessation of military operations by Israel and the withdrawal of Israeli troops beyond the armistice line established by the agreements signed at the end of the Arab-Israeli War of 1948–49. The situation that had developed in the Middle East was examined at another conference held in Budapest on July 11–12, 1967, and attended by the leaders of the fraternal parties and the heads of state of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, the USSR, and Yugoslavia). The conference sharply condemned the aggressive policy of Israel’s ruling circles, noting that their principal support was coming from the forces of imperialism in the USA. In addition, the conference declared its firm support for the friendly Arab states and for their just struggle to eliminate the consequences of Israel’s aggression, and called for the immediate withdrawal of Israeli troops from the territories they had seized. The participants in the conference declared that they were prepared to aid the Arab peoples in every way possible.

Key problems in political and economic development and cooperation were discussed in Dresden on Mar. 23, 1968, by leading figures in the Communist and workers’ parties and governments of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, and the USSR). Current problems in international affairs and in the world communist and workers’ movement were reviewed at a meeting held in Moscow on May 8, 1968, and attended by leading figures in the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, and the USSR). On July 14–15, 1968, leaders of the governments and the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, and the USSR) met in Warsaw, where they exchanged opinions on problems in international relations and the maintenance of peace and security in Europe, as well as on problems of the world communist movement and the course of events in Czechoslovakia. A conference of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, and the USSR) was held in Bratislava on Aug. 3, 1968. The participants discussed ways of strengthening and developing fraternal cooperation among the socialist states. Party and state leaders of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, the the USSR) met in Moscow, on Dec. 3–4, 1969, exchanging opinions on a broad range of problems associated with strengthening peace and international security and publishing the declaration To Put an End to Aggression in Vietnam.

Opinions on current problems in building socialism and communism were exchanged on Feb. 24–25, 1970, in Sofia at a meeting of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR). The participants exchanged information on measures taken in their countries to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the birth of V. I. Lenin.

Representatives of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, and the USSR attended a friendly meeting of the leaders of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries in the Crimea on Aug. 2,1971. The participants touched on current questions regarding the development of the world communist movement, as well as foreign policy problems of mutual interest. They emphasized the great importance of the Program of Peace adopted at the Twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU and reaffirmed their support for the Indochinese and Arab peoples fighting against aggression. They also expressed grave concern over the terror launched against the Communist party and other democratic organizations in the Sudan.

The leaders of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR) met in the Crimea on July 31, 1972. There was a productive exchange of opinions regarding the course of socialist and communist construction and the further development of all-around cooperation among the socialist states.

The leaders of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR) met in the Crimea on July 30–31, 1973. The participants exchanged information regarding the activity of their parties and the development of their socialist states. There was also a broad exchange of opinions on urgent international problems. The meeting noted the successes of the peace-loving policies of the countries of the socialist commonwealth, as reflected in the end of the war in Vietnam, full legal recognition of the GDR on the international level, the strengthening of Cuba’s international position, and the opening of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. A conference of the secretaries of the central committees of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries was held in Moscow on Dec. 18–19, 1973, and was attended by the representatives of Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR. The participants exchanged their experiences in ideological party work and discussed urgent questions of how to deepen ideological cooperation among the fraternal parties under contemporary conditions.

A conference of the secretaries of the central committees of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries was held in Moscow on Jan. 22–23, 1974, and was attended by representatives of Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR. The fraternal parties represented at the conference exchanged information on their experience with current problems of party building and on the practical resolution of such problems. A conference of the secretaries of the central committees of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries was held in Prague on Mar. 4–5,1975, and was attended by representatives of Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR. The participants discussed questions of cooperation among the fraternal parties in ideological work, in the context of the contemporary international situation.

On Mar. 18,1975, in Budapest there was a meeting of the leaders of the Communist parties of the socialist countries that had participated in the Eleventh Congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, and the USSR). The participants discussed questions related to the 30th anniversary of the defeat of German fascism and considered a number of current international problems and questions associated with the world communist movement. The secretaries of the central committees of the Communist and workers’ parties and the deputy heads of state of the COMECON countries held meetings in Moscow on Sept. 10–12 and Oct. 9, 1975. The meetings were devoted to the tasks of deepening and improving economic, scientific, and technological cooperation among the members of COMECON. On Dec. 9, 1975, in Warsaw there was a meeting of the leaders of the Communist parties of the socialist countries that had participated in the Seventh Congress of the Polish United Workers’ Party (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, and the USSR). The leaders of the fraternal parties exchanged opinions on questions of the further development of cooperation among the socialist states and discussed current international problems. Attention was focused on ways of putting into practice the principles and provisions of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, which had been signed in Helsinki. On Jan. 26, 1976, in Warsaw the secretaries of the central committees of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries (Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR) held a conference on international and ideological questions. The participants discussed urgent questions of ideological and political work, taking into account the problems of the present stage of the struggle for the deepening of international détente and the results of the European Conference. On Mar. 4, 1976, in Moscow there was a meeting of the heads of the delegations of the Communist and workers’ parties of a number of socialist countries (Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the DRV, the GDR, Hungary, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Poland, Rumania, and Yugoslavia), which had participated in the Twenty-fifth Congress of the CPSU. Among the participants in the meeting were L. I. Brezhnev, general secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU; the members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU; the candidate members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU; and the secretaries of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

The leaders of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist countries have also met at the most important sessions of the leading bodies of COMECON and the Warsaw Pact (1955).

European countries. Since the late 1950’s conferences of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the European countries have been held regularly.

The representatives of 15 European Communist and workers’ parties met at a conference in Berlin in June 1958. (Representatives were sent by the Communist and workers’ parties of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany [FRG], France, the GDR, Great Britain, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland.) Questions related to the struggle for peace and international security on the European continent were discussed. A conference of the representatives of the Communist parties of countries in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the Common Market was held in Brussels on Apr. 1–2,1959. The participants discussed the question of unity of action by the political and trade union organizations of the working class and other democratic forces in the struggle against the policies of the ECSC and the Common Market. In November 1959 in Rome there was an international meeting of 17 Communist parties of the capitalist countries of Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Switzerland, and Sweden). The participants discussed problems of the unity of the working class in the struggle for peace, for the development and defense of democracy, and for the well-being of the working people. They also adopted the Appeal of the Communist Parties of the Capitalist Countries of Europe to All Working People, to All Democrats.

On Mar. 4–6,1963, in Brussels there was a meeting of the representatives of the Communist parties from six Common Market countries and Great Britain. The declaration adopted at this meeting called for the strengthening of the common struggle of peoples against the policies of the monopolies and for peace, democracy, and social progress. Another meeting of the representatives of the Communist parties of six Common Market countries was held in Oostende (Belgium) on Dec. 1–2, 1964. The participants reached an agreement on developing joint actions and on supporting the struggle to realize social and democratic demands. The Communist parties decided to step up their activities in the struggle for disarmament, the struggle against multilateral nuclear forces and the possession of other forms of nuclear weapons by the West German militarists, and the struggle against neocolonialism and its policy of military intervention.

A conference of 19 Communist and workers’ parties of the European capitalist countries was held in Brussels on June 1–3, 1965. (Representatives were sent by the Communist and workers’ parties of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and West Berlin.) The conference focused on problems of European security and solidarity with the liberation struggle of the Vietnamese people. On May 9–11, 1966, in Vienna the Communist parties of Western Europe held a conference attended by representatives from Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and West Berlin. The conference was devoted to the development of a program for the struggle of the working people against the monopolies. The participants expressed their support for convening a conference of the European Communist parties.

The European Communist and workers’ parties held a conference on questions of European security in Karlovy Vary on Apr. 24–26, 1967. The conference was attended by representatives from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden (observer status), Switzerland, the USSR, and West Berlin. The Karlovy Vary Conference was one of the most important meetings of the Communist and workers’ parties of the socialist and capitalist countries of Europe. The declaration For Peace and Security in Europe, which was adopted by the conference, analyzed the international situation, pointing out the sources of the threat of war and outlining a detailed program for the struggle for peace. The conference underscored the threat posed by the policies of American imperialism and West German militarism in Europe, and it defined a program of action for replacing opposing blocks with a system of collective security based on the principles of peaceful coexistence between states with different social systems. The conference also issued a declaration against American aggression in Vietnam and the military coup of Apr. 21,1967, in Greece.

Opinions on problems of collective security and peace on the European continent were exchanged at a meeting of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the European countries in Moscow on Jan. 14–15, 1970. The conference was attended by representatives from Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the USSR, West Berlin, and Yugoslavia.

A conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the capitalist countries of Europe was held in Paris on May 15, 1970. Representatives were sent by the Communist and workers’ parties of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and West Berlin. After discussing the situation created in Indochina by US aggression against Cambodia and Laos, the participants in the conference adopted resolutions calling for increased aid to the victims of aggression.

In London on Sept. 21,1970, there was a meeting of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the capitalist countries of Western Europe (Cyprus, the FRG, France, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain). The participants adopted a resolution calling for a conference of the Communist parties of Western Europe in January 1971. At a meeting of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of Europe in Moscow Oct. 20–21, 1970, there was an exchange of opinions on questions related to the struggle for European security. (Representatives were sent by the Communist and workers’ parties of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the USSR, and West Berlin.)

A conference of the Communist parties of the European capitalist countries in London on Jan. 11–13, 1971, was attended by delegates from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The participants discussed problems confronting the struggle of the working class of the European capitalist countries, with the development of transnational monopolistic associations. On Aug. 12–13, 1971, there was a conference of the representatives of the Communist parties of Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland, and Norway in Copenhagen. The participants discussed questions associated with their countries’ plans to join the European Economic Community. The representatives of the Communist parties of these four countries agreed to exchange information and experience and to coordinate their efforts in the common struggle.

The European Communist and workers’ parties held a conference for solidarity with the peoples of Vietnam on July 27,1972, in Paris. The conference was attended by delegations from the Communist and workers’ parties of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands (observer status), Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the USSR, West Berlin, and Yugoslavia. The conference approved a declaration of solidarity with the people of Vietnam.

On Feb. 21–22,1973, the representatives of 27 European Communist and workers’ parties met in Moscow to consider problems in working among young people. The meeting was attended by representatives from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the USSR, West Berlin, and Yugoslavia. The delegations exchanged experiences in work among young people, as well as opinions on the broader participation of the younger generation in the movement for European security and cooperation and in the struggle against imperialism and for peace, democracy, and socialism.

From 1973 to January 1974 the Communist and workers’ parties of the European capitalist countries held a number of meetings in preparation for the conference planned for January 1974. At the preparatory meeting in Stockholm on Sept. 27–28,1973, a resolution supporting the struggle of the people of Chile was adopted. Another preparatory meeting was held in Copenhagen on Oct. 16–17,1973. Problems associated with the currency crisis were considered at a meeting in the Paris suburb of St.-Denis on Nov. 26–27, 1973. The topic of a preparatory meeting held in Rome on the same dates was the content and new forms of the struggle of the workers and the popular masses in the European capitalist countries. Further preparatory meetings were held on Dec. 17–18, 1973, in Rome; on Jan. 8–9, 1974, in Essen (problems of the status of alien workers in the European capitalist countries); and on Jan. 11–13, 1974, in Geneva (the question of the condition of the intelligentsia in the European capitalist countries).

A conference of the Communist and workers’ parties of the European capitalist countries was held in Brussels on Jan. 26–28, 1974, and was attended by delegations from Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands (observer status), Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and West Berlin. The participants discussed questions connected with the exacerbation of the crisis of capitalism; the future of the struggle of the Communist parties for social progress, democracy, national independence, peace, and socialism; and ways of intensifying the struggle for the unity of the working class and democratic forces. The conference adopted declarations expressing solidarity with the people of Vietnam and Chile and assessed the energy crisis in the countries of the capitalist system. The Brussels conference adopted the Political Declaration, which described the deteriorating socioeconomic and political situation in Western Europe and defined the main lines of activity of the Communist parties of the European capitalist countries in the present stage.

On June 22–23, 1974, a meeting of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the European capitalist countries was held in Paris, within the framework of the joint initiatives envisaged by the Brussels conference. The participants in the Paris meeting decided to hold a conference on the status and social and political role of women in the capitalist countries’. On Sept. 28–29, 1974, the Communist parties of the European capitalist countries held a conference in Luxembourg to prepare for the conference on the status of women in capitalist society. A working session of the Communist and workers’ parties of the European capitalist countries was held in Düsseldorf on Oct. 1, 1974. Representatives from Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and West Berlin exchanged information on the implementation of the resolutions of the Brussels conference. On Oct. 16–18, 1974, a consultative meeting of the European Communist and workers’ parties was held in Warsaw. It was attended by delegations from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the USSR, West Berlin, and Yugoslavia. The participants agreed on the necessity and expediency of preparing for the convocation of a conference of the European Communist and workers’ parties on the struggle for peace, security, cooperation, and social progress in Europe. The status of women in capitalist society was the topic at a conference of the Communist parties of the European capitalist countries, held in Rome on Nov. 15–17, 1974, and attended by representatives of 19 Communist parties.

A preparatory meeting for the conference of the European Communist and workers’ parties was held in Budapest on Dec. 19–21, 1974. Representatives were sent by the Communist parties of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the USSR, West Berlin, and Yugoslavia. The participants discussed political and practical questions associated with the preparation for the conference of the European Communist and workers’ parties, presented their viewpoints regarding the agenda, agreed to establish a drafting commission, and endorsed the proposal for holding seminars on problems associated with the impending conference. The parties represented at the preparatory meeting favored the earliest possible convening of the summit talks of the concluding stage of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and they reemphasized their aspirations for the solidarity and unity of all democratic and progressive forces in Europe. Sessions of the drafting commission for the preparation of the conference of the Communist and workers’ parties of Europe were held on Feb. 17–19, Apr. 8–10, Oct. 9–10, and Nov. 17–19, 1975, and on Jan. 13–22, Mar. 16–18, and May 4–6,1976.

Representatives of the Communist parties of the European capitalist countries met in Düsseldorf from Feb. 28 to Mar. 1, 1975. (The meeting was preceded by a preparatory conference in Düsseldorf on Jan. 31,1975.) The topic was the crisis in the automobile industry of the European capitalist countries, the struggle of the working class, and the position of the Communist parties. Representatives were sent by the Communist parties of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the FRG, France, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. On Apr. 19–21, 1975, in Rome there was a meeting of the European Communist and workers’ parties on the contemporary situation and prospects for economic cooperation in Europe. Representatives of 28 Communist parties, including the CPSU, attended.

The Communist and workers’ parties of the European capitalist countries held a conference on agricultural problems on May 20–22, 1975, in Paris. (The conference, which was preceded by a preparatory meeting in Paris on Jan. 10, 1975, was attended by representatives from the Communist parties of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and Turkey.) A working session of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the European capitalist countries was held in Paris on Dec. 10, 1975, and was attended by delegations from Belgium, Denmark, the FRG, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and West Berlin. The session was devoted to the results of the implementation of the recommendations of the January 1974 conference and the initiatives outlined at the working session of October 1974 in Düsseldorf. On Mar. 15, 1976, the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of a number of capitalist countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, the FRG, France, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey) held a preparatory session in Brussels regarding the organization of a meeting to discuss ways of resisting the policies of big capital and defending the interests of the working people.

There have been 16 conferences and meetings of the Communist parties of northern Europe (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). The main questions discussed have been the political and economic situation of the northern European countries; the struggle for peace, for the convening of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and against the northern countries joining the European Economic Community; and the situation in the international communist movement.

The Americas. There have been several conferences of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of the Americas. From Nov. 23 to Nov. 28, 1964, there was a conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties of Latin America, with delegations from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The conference elaborated recommendations aimed at developing mutual support and strengthening the liberation struggle of the Latin American peoples and their solidarity with the Cuban people. The delegates adopted the resolution For the Unity of the International Communist Movement.

A conference of the Latin American Communist parties was held in Santiago in November-December 1969. A broad range of questions was considered, including the situation in the international communist and workers’ movement and in the countries participating in the conference (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela).

At a meeting of the Communist parties of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay in September 1971 there was an exchange of information and opinions on the problems of Latin America, and especially its southern regions. The participants called on all patriots to unite for the struggle against the imperialist threat. In September 1973 there was a conference of the representatives of the Communist parties of the countries of the La Plata River basin (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The participants worked out a common position for the Communist parties on the resolution of questions affecting the interests of the people of their countries.

Conferences of the Communist and workers’ parties of the Central American countries were held in July 1961, September 1962, February 1964, September 1965, June 1967, November 1969, June 1971, May 1972, and May 1974. Representatives were sent by the Communist and workers’ parties of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The Mexican Communist Party was represented at almost all of the Central American conferences. The People’s Party of Panama was represented at the conferences beginning in 1965. The conferences stressed the need for joint action by all detachments of the world communist movement in the struggle against the aggressive policy of US imperialism; the need to increase aid to the Vietnamese people in their fight against American aggression; and the importance of developing solidarity with the Cuban people, as well as with the Arab peoples, the victims of Israeli aggression. In addition, the Central American conferences called for the strengthening of solidarity with Latin American peoples struggling against reaction. In January 1974 the Communist parties of Central America and Mexico addressed a message to the Central Committee of the CPSU regarding the 50th anniversary of the death of V. I. Lenin.

On June 9–13, 1975, a conference of the Communist parties of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean took place in Havana. Representatives were sent by the Communist parties of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Observers were sent by the Communist parties of Canada and the USA. The conference demonstrated the firm unity of the Latin American Communist parties and adopted a declaration analyzing the Latin American and international situations.

Arab countries. Conferences of the representatives of the Communist parties of the Arab countries have become a tradition. At an August 1959 meeting of the representatives of the Communist parties of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia there was an exchange of opinions regarding conditions in these countries, as well as common tasks. In April 1964 there was a meeting of the representatives of the Communist parties of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. The participants approved the document Regarding the Distortions of the Chinese Leaders and Their Schismatic, Subversive Activity, as well as the Declaration on the Question of Arab Unity. A meeting of representatives of the Communists of the Maghrib and the Mashriq was held in December 1964. The participants, who represented the Communist parties of Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, the Sudan, and Tunisia, called for strengthening the union of all revolutionary forces in their countries, outlined ways of realizing Arab unity, and expressed solidarity with the liberation struggle of the peoples of the Congo and South Vietnam.

During the April 1966 conference of the representatives of the Communist parties of the Arab countries (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria) there was an exchange of opinions on the situation in the Arab world and the struggle of the Arab peoples against imperialism and for complete liberation and progress. The conference called on Communists throughout the world to unite on the basis of the general line formulated in the documents of the international conferences of 1957 and 1960.

In May 1967 the representatives of the Communist parties of the Arab countries held a conference attended by delegations from Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. During their discussion of the contemporary situation in the Arab world, the participants considered problems connected with the aggressive aspirations of the ruling circles of Israel and their American imperialist supporters, as well as problems associated with the most important international problems. The conference adopted a special resolution on the 50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution, emphasizing that “all the victories won by the Arab peoples in their struggle against imperialism and reaction, all the important progressive transformations in the Arab world, are inextricably linked with the Great October victory and the tremendous aid rendered by the Soviet Union to the Arab countries.” The July 1968 conference of the Communist parties of the Arab countries was attended by representatives from Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia. The participants discussed the urgent tasks of the Arab national movement in eliminating the consequences of Israeli aggression.

Questions regarding the situation in Iraq, Jordan, and the Sudan, as well as the Palestinian resistance movement, were examined at conferences of the representatives of the Arab Communist parties on Sept. 18, 1970 (Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria); in mid-January 1971 (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria); and in July 1971 (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria). The efforts of imperialism and reactionary forces to split the ranks of the Arab national liberation movement were condemned. The conferences also affirmed the necessity of strengthening Arab-Soviet friendship, as well as cooperation and coordinated action among the Communist parties of the Arab countries.

The September 1973 conference of the Communist and workers’ parties of the Arab countries was attended by representatives of Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, the Sudan, and Syria. The participants discussed questions associated with the struggle against Israeli aggression and for the anti-imperialist unity of the Arab peoples, and they defined several urgent tasks facing the Arab liberation movement in the stage of the democratic revolution. They affirmed their resolve to wage a decisive struggle against Maoism and the subversive activity of the Peking leadership and to struggle indefatigably to strengthen the solidarity and unity of the world communist movement, on the basis of Marxism-Leninism, proletarian internationalism, and the union of the national liberation movement with the countries of the socialist commonwealth and other progressive forces in the world. A conference of the representatives of the Communist parties of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria was held in November 1973 on the situation in the Middle East and the tasks of Communists in the present stage. The communiqué issued by the conference stressed the importance of Arab-Soviet friendship and the role of the Soviet Union in supporting the just struggle of the Arab countries.

The April 1975 conference of the Communist and workers’ parties of the Arab countries (Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia) discussed pressing questions in the Arab national liberation movement, as well as questions associated with the world communist movement and the struggle of nations for peace, national independence, democracy, and social progress. The tasks involved in completing the national democratic revolutions in the Arab countries were defined. The conference noted the necessity of constant vigilance against the machinations of imperialism, Zionism, and reaction. It condemned the subversive role of Maoism in the world communist and national liberation movements, and it called for another international meeting of the Communist and workers’ parties.

International theoretical conferences. International theoretical conferences of Marxists are held regularly. There have been many such conferences, including the international meeting dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the Seventh Congress of the Comintern (Prague, October, 1965), the international scientific conference on the topic “the international significance of the Great October Socialist Revolution” (Moscow, Mar. 28–31, 1967), the international theoretical conference on the theme “the historical significance of the Great October Socialist Revolution” (Prague, June 22–24,1967), and the scientific session on the theme “Marxism and problems of the world revolutionary movement” (Moscow, May 18, 1968), which was dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the birth of K. Marx. Other Marxist conferences on theory include the scientific session dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Communist International (Moscow, Mar. 25–26, 1969).

There have been international theoretical conferences on various themes, including “Leninism and the present” (Prague, Nov. 19–21, 1969), “the growth of the role of Leninism in the present era and the critique of anticommunism” (Moscow, Jan. 19–23, 1970), “Leninism and the world revolutionary process” (Moscow, Feb. 24–26, 1970), and “Friedrich Engels and the communist movement” (Prague, July 1–2,1970).

International scientific and theoretical conferences have been dedicated to various occasions. A conference held in Berlin on Nov. 12–13, 1970, was dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the birth of F. Engels. The 100th anniversary of the Paris Commune was the theme of international scientific conferences in Prague on Nov. 12–13,1970, and in Paris on May 6–9,1971.

In January 1972 in Moscow there was an international symposium on the topic “processes of integration in the system of contemporary capitalism,” and on Sept. 28–29,1971, in Prague there was an exchange of opinions on “Communists and new features in the youth movement of the capitalist countries.” An international theoretical conference was held in Prague on Apr. 5–7, 1972, on the topic “dialectics of the international and the national in the world socialist system.” On June 13–17, 1972, in Sofia there was an international conference dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of G. Dimitrov. A scientific and theoretical conference on “the new stage in the national liberation movement of the countries of Asia and Africa and problems of unity among the anti-imperialist forces” was held on June 27–29,1972, in Prague, and an international theoretical conference dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the formation of the USSR was held on July 5–7, 1972, in the same city. On Mar. 15–16, 1973, in Berlin there was an international theoretical conference focusing on the theme “the historic mission of the working class and the contemporary world revolutionary process” and dedicated to the 125th anniversary of the Communist Manifesto.

On May 6–8, 1974, a scientific and theoretical conference on the problems of young people was held in Prague. An international theoretical conference on the topic “the union of socialist countries and the national liberation movement” took place on June 5–7,1974, in Baghdad. It was attended by representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties and national liberation movements of the countries of Asia and Africa. A scientific and theoretical conference on the theme “the present stage of competition between the two world systems” was held on June 18–19, 1974, in Prague, and an international theoretical conference on the theme “contemporary problems of socialist democracy and prospects for its development” was held on Nov. 12–14, 1974, in Sofia. A scientific conference dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Seventh Congress of the Comintern and focusing on the topic “the communist movement in the vanguard of the struggle for peace, socialism, and national liberation” took place on July 4–7, 1975, in Moscow. On Nov. 25–27, 1975, in Prague there was an international theoretical conference on the theme “Leninist doctrine on imperialism and the characteristics of the present stage of the general crisis of capitalism.”

The attendance of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties at the congresses of the fraternal parties has become an important means of studying the experience of the international communist movement and strengthening international ties and ideological and political unity among Communists. The Twenty-fourth Congress of the CPSU (March-April 1971) was attended by 102 delegations and the Twenty-fifth Congress (February-March 1976) by 103 delegations of Communist and workers’, national democratic, and left-wing socialist parties. The Tenth (April 1971) and Eleventh (March-April 1976) congresses of the Bulgarian Communist Party were attended by 74 and 103 delegations, respectively, and the Fourteenth (May 1971) and Fifteenth (April 1976) congresses of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia by 58 and 86 delegations, respectively. The Eighth Congress of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (June 1971) was attended by 75 delegations, and the Ninth Congress (May 1976), by 103. The Fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of Argentina (August 1973) was attended by 23 delegations, the Tenth Congress of the Communist Party of India (January-February 1975) by 27 delegations, the Thirteenth Congress of the Italian Communist Party (March 1975) by 76 delegations, the First Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba (December 1975) by about 90 delegations, the Seventh Congress of the Polish United Workers’ Party (December 1975) by 63 delegations, the Twenty-second Congress of the French Communist Party (February 1976) by 88 delegations, and the Bonn Congress of the German Communist Party (March 1976) by 36 delegations. Party delegations from many countries have attended congresses of the Communist and workers’ parties of Austria, Belgium, Colombia, Denmark, Hungary, Morocco, Norway, Rumania, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, and other countries.

Bilateral meetings and negotiations have been extensively developed in the communist movement. Since the International Conference of Communist and Workers’ Parties in 1969, up to 600 bilateral meetings and negotiations a year have been held between various Communist parties. The CPSU is active in developing fraternal ties with Communist and workers’ parties. During the interval between the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth congresses of the CPSU, the Soviet Union was visited by more than 550 party delegations from nonsocialist countries. During this period the CPSU sent more than 150 delegations to foreign countries, at the invitation of the fraternal parties.

The diverse contacts among the Marxist-Leninist parties and the decisive condemnation, by the overwhelming majority of them, of the Chinese and other “right” and “left” schismatics, demonstrate the loyalty of the Marxist-Leninist parties to the ideas of proletarian internationalism and the vital necessity of joint action by Communists; they also help strengthen the solidarity of the Communist movement, promote the development of a coordinated line for the movement, and enrich the forms and methods of cooperation among the fraternal parties under contemporary conditions.

Basic information on the international conferences of the Communist and workers’ parties in 1957, 1960, and 1969.THE 1957 CONFERENCE. On Nov. 16–19, 1957, a conference of the representatives of the Communist and workers’ parties took place in Moscow. It was attended by delegations from 64 countries: Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (the DRV), Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Finland, France, the German Democratic Republic (GDR), Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Malaya, Mexico, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Morocco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria and Lebanon, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the USSR, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia.

The participants discussed urgent questions associated with the contemporary international situation. The main document adopted by the 1957 conference was the Manifesto on Peace (see the publication Programmnye dokumenty bor’by za mir, demo-kratiiu, isotsializm, Moscow, 1961).

1960 CONFERENCE. The November 1960 Conference of the Representatives of the Communist and Workers’ Parties was attended by delegations from 81 countries, including Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, the DRV, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, the FRG, Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malaya, Martinique, Mexico, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Morocco, Nepal, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Réunion, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, the Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the Union of South Africa, the USSR, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Among the questions considered at the conference were the exchange of experience and the discussion of current problems in contemporary international development and in the communist movement with respect to the struggle for peace, democracy, national independence, and socialism. The main documents adopted by the conference were the Declaration of the Communist and Workers’ Parties and the Appeal to the Peoples of the World (in Programmnye dokumenty bor’by za mir, demokratiiu i sotsializm, Moscow, 1961).

1969 CONFERENCE. The June 15–17,1969, International Conference of the Representatives of the Communist and Workers’ Parties, which was held in Moscow, was attended by delegations from Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, East Pakistan, Ecuador, El Salvador, the FRG (the Communist Party of Germany), Finland, France, the GDR, Great Britain, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Martinique, Mexico, the Mongolian People’s Republic, Morocco, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Ireland, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, the Republic of South Africa, Réunion, Rumania, San Marino, Spain, the Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, the USSR, the USA, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Two underground parties also sent representatives. The Communist Party of Cuba and the Left-Party Communists of Sweden sent observers to present their positions. A total of 75 Communist and workers’ parties were represented at the conference.

The participants discussed the tasks of the struggle against imperialism in the present stage, as well as unity of action among the Communist and workers’ parties, unity of all anti-imperialist forces, and the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of V. I. Lenin. The main documents adopted by the conference were the Tasks of the Struggle Against Imperialism in the Present Stage and Unity of Action of the Communist and Workers’ Parties and of all Anti-imperialist Forces, An Appeal in Defense of Peace, and An Address on the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Il’ich Lenin. The conference addressed an appeal to the peoples of the world—”Independence, Freedom, and Peace to Vietnam!” (see Dokumenty Mezhdunarodnogo Sovesh-chaniia kommunisticheskikh i rabochickh partii, Moskva, 5–17 iunia 1969g., Moscow, 1969).

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

Programmnye dokumenty bor’by za mir, demokratiiu i sotsializm: Dokumenty Soveshchanii predstavitelei kommunisticheskikh i rabochikh partii, sostoiavshikhsia v Moskve v noiabre 1957 g., v Buk-hareste v iiune 1960 g., v Moskve v noiabre 1960 g. Moscow, 1961.
“Ob itogakh Soveshchaniia predstavitelei kommunisticheskikh i rabochikh partii: Postanovlenie Plenuma TsK KPSS, priniatoe 17 dekabria 1957 g.” Pravda, Dec. 19, 1957.
“Ob itogakh Soveshchaniia predstavitelei kommunisticheskikh i rabochikh partii: Postanovlenie Plenuma TsK KPSS, priniatoe 18 ianvaria 1961 g.” Pravda, Jan. 20, 1961.
“O mezhdunarodnoi politike SSSR i bor’be KPSS za splochennost’ kommunisticheskogo dvizheniia: Postanovlenie Plenuma TsK KPSS, 13 dekabria 1966 g.” Pravda, Dec. 14,1966.
Mezhdunarodnoe Soveshchanie kommunisticheskikh i rabochikh partii, Moskva 1969. Prague, 1969.
Mezhdunarodnoe Soveshchanie kommunisticheskikh i rabochikh partii, Moskva, 5–17iiunia 1969 g. Moscow, 1969,
“Ob itogakh mezhdunarodnogo Soveshchaniia kommunisticheskikh i rabochikh partii: Postnovlenie Plenuma TsK KPSS, priniatoe 26 iiunia 1969 g.” Pravda, June 27, 1969.
Brezhnev, L. I. Otchetnyi doklad Tsentral’nogo Komiteta KPSS XXIVs’ezdu KPSS. Moscow, 1971.
Materialy XXVs”ezda KPSS. Moscow, 1976.
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