CO: Interplay Productions; Confounding Factor
ST: California IN:
Respondents with confirmed awareness of the Touch campaign (about 15%) experienced significant improvements in indicators related to condom use, even after controlling for confounding factors
In addition, high heart rates within the normal range do not always raise concern, because some patients with high heart rates have confounding factors
such as being unfit or overweight.
2]) had a 64% higher risk than normal weight women of developing the disorder, even after adjustments for potential confounding factors
such as age, smoking, and psychological well-being.
After adjustment for potential confounding factors
, particularly maternal IQ and educational attainment, IQ differences between children in the breastmilk and unfortified formula groups were severely attenuated, but children fed DHA-fortified formula had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were higher than those fed unfortified formula.
Whilst diabetes mellitus has many causes and often results as a culmination of multiple risk factors, cardiovascular disease and obesity represent significant confounding factors
for the incidence of Type II diabetes.
The sample for the study was 13,693 Swedish twins aged 65 or older in 1998, the year tracking for dementia began (twins provide naturally matched pairs, in which confounding factors
such as genetics and childhood environment may be removed when comparisons are made between twins).
Numerous measures of folate status and comprehensive evaluations of confounding factors
led the researchers to determine that there was no relationship between incidence of orofacial cleft and supplemental or dietary folic acid.
The task force notes just how challenging it is to study the possible long-term psychological sequelae of abortion and calls for better-designed, rigorously conducted future research on the topic to "help disentangle confounding factors
and establish relative risks of abortion compared to its alternatives.
It was a real challenge to separate the influence of human-caused temperature increases from natural climate variations or other confounding factors
, such as land-use changes or pollution," notes co-author David Karoly, a climate scientist at the University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
In a review of such relevance, critical analysis of confounding factors
However, this report did not provide any information regarding patient type or the influence of confounding factors