Congo Basin


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Related to Congo Basin: Congo River Basin

Congo Basin

 

a vast depression (about 1,000 km in diameter) in Central Africa, lying within a ring of uplands. Structurally it corresponds to the syneclise of the African Platform, laid down in the Upper Precambrian. An underground projection of the crystalline foundation of the platform (at depths of 500–1,000 m) divides the syneclise into a southern and northern basin; in the middle of these basins the foundation drops to depths of more than 3,000 m. The syneclise is filled with a thick layer of Upper Proterozoic, Upper Paleozoic, and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, covered by relatively thin, loose Cenozoic deposits.

The relief of the Congo Basin has a tiered structure. The lowest (300–400 m) and youngest (Holocene) tier is formed by broad, mostly marshy floodplain valleys that merge into a single, flat, periodically flooded alluvial plain in the central part of the basin. Above this may be traced several levels of Anthropogenic terraces and Pliocene-Anthropogenic terrace-like plateaus rising toward marginal uplands with an elevation of more than 500 m in the north and west and more than 1,000 m in the south and east. The basin is drained by the Congo River. It has a hot, humid, equatorial climate (subequatorial on the northern and southern peripheries), with average monthly temperatures ranging from 23°-25° to 26°-27° C and an annual precipitation exceeding 1,500–2,000 mm. The area is completely covered by dense, wet evergreen and deciduous-evergreen forests.

I. N. OLEINIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Baillonella toxisperma Pierre oil has been documented as one of the most important household sources of livelihoods in Cameroon and the rest of the Congo Basin countries [5, 7, 8, 14]; thus its oil yield is an important characteristic to be considered during its promotion for consumption and conservation of the species.
Additionally, protein sequences of MPXV-TNP were more similar to those of sequences from the West African clade than to those of the Congo Basin clade (Figure 2).
The Congo Basin rainforest, stretching 2 million square miles across central Africa, is second only to the Amazon rainforest in size.
Having destroyed vast areas of forest in countries such as Indonesia, palm oil companies are now planning to expand in the rainforests of the Congo Basin in Africa.
There are three major cross-border cholera epidemic outbreaks in West and Central Africa: the Lake Chad Basin (Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria and Niger), the West Congo Basin (DRC, Congo and the Central African Republic) and Lake Tanganyika (DRC and Burundi).
Deforestation in places from the Congo basin to Papua New Guinea is blamed for perhaps 12 to 20 percent of all emissions by human activities.
This means they could be supporting the illegal timber trade in countries like Indonesia and in the Congo Basin.
The African Development Bank has supported several concrete initiatives for adaptation to climate change and mitigation in agriculture, water, transportation, and energy all over Africa, among others: the Buseraka power station in Uganda; the Sahanivotry power station in Madagascar; the thermo-solar station in Morroco; the fight against desertification project in Mali and a number of forest projects through the Congo Basin Forest Fund (CBFF).
Onshore production is centred in Kwanza near Luanda and in the Congo Basin near Soyo.
1 million tonnes of bushmeat in the Congo basin is eaten yearly alone, according to the World Wildlife Fund.
Stretching from the Atlantic Coast to the East African countries of Burundi and Rwanda, the Congo Basin covers much of central Africa and has traditionally been a rain forest refuge for gorillas and other apes.