Congo Basin

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Congo Basin

 

a vast depression (about 1,000 km in diameter) in Central Africa, lying within a ring of uplands. Structurally it corresponds to the syneclise of the African Platform, laid down in the Upper Precambrian. An underground projection of the crystalline foundation of the platform (at depths of 500–1,000 m) divides the syneclise into a southern and northern basin; in the middle of these basins the foundation drops to depths of more than 3,000 m. The syneclise is filled with a thick layer of Upper Proterozoic, Upper Paleozoic, and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, covered by relatively thin, loose Cenozoic deposits.

The relief of the Congo Basin has a tiered structure. The lowest (300–400 m) and youngest (Holocene) tier is formed by broad, mostly marshy floodplain valleys that merge into a single, flat, periodically flooded alluvial plain in the central part of the basin. Above this may be traced several levels of Anthropogenic terraces and Pliocene-Anthropogenic terrace-like plateaus rising toward marginal uplands with an elevation of more than 500 m in the north and west and more than 1,000 m in the south and east. The basin is drained by the Congo River. It has a hot, humid, equatorial climate (subequatorial on the northern and southern peripheries), with average monthly temperatures ranging from 23°-25° to 26°-27° C and an annual precipitation exceeding 1,500–2,000 mm. The area is completely covered by dense, wet evergreen and deciduous-evergreen forests.

I. N. OLEINIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
In Congo itself, the South African-based power giant, Eskom, plans to harness the Congo River into one of the world's biggest power-generating schemes for the needs of Southern Africa, as well as exports to the Middle East and Europe.
briefly to journalists on the veranda of his villa perched above the Congo River at Camp Colonel Tshatshi.
a wholly owned subsidiary, is the leading participant in the rehabilitation of the 1440MW Inga II Hydro-electric station on the Congo River in the DRC.
Rehabilitation of the Pan American highway to Yaviza (5 flights) and transport infrastructure as the airport of La Palma and ports Quimba and soon La Palma Implementing pilot exercise on management techniques and soil conservation in 10 farms in Rio Arriba Congo and Congo River.
Plans have been rekindled for the construction of a 40billion [pounds sterling] hydropower dam on the Congo River, which could generate twice as much electricity as China's controversial Three Gorges Dam.
Then after riding the Nemesis, Oblivion and the Congo River Rapids and other top attractions they will be able to buy a DVD of their day out.
Kekele is a Lingala word (Lingala being the lingua franca of the Congos) for a fibrous vine that climbs trees in the tropical forests of the Congo River basin.
A primary exit route across the Congo River to Brazzaville, capital of the neighbouring Republic of Congo, was closed days ago, with all traffic across the water stopped.
Goddard, the first man to explore the length of the Nile and to follow the Congo River, will lead participants to the Masai Mara and Samburu Game Reserves to see zebra, wildebeest, lions and giraffes.
ICTSI's) new terminal, sited at Matadi on the Congo River, Democratic Republic of the Congo, is on track to open for business in August this year.
Eventually, he decides to retrace the footsteps of another Telegraph journalist, Henry Morton Stanley, whose mapping of the Congo River during the 19th century was one of the most important journeys in the history of African exploration.
A water-stained map of the Congo River, drawn by Henry Morton Stanley fetched nearly $130,000 at Christie's in London.