conscientious objector

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conscientious objector,

person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of FriendsFriends, Religious Society of,
religious body originating in England in the middle of the 17th cent. under George Fox. The members are commonly called Quakers, originally a term of derision.
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 (Quakers), the DukhoborsDukhobors
or Doukhobors
[Russ.,=spirit wrestlers], religious group, prominent in Russia from the 18th to the 19th cent. The name was coined by the Orthodox opponents of the Dukhobors, who had originally called themselves Christians of the Universal Brotherhood.
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, or Jehovah's WitnessesJehovah's Witnesses,
Christian group originating in the United States at the end of the 19th cent., organized by Charles Taze Russell, whose doctrine centers on the Second Coming of Christ.
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, or on personal religious or humanitarian convictions. Political opposition to the particular aim of conscription, such as that maintained by the CopperheadsCopperheads,
in the American Civil War, a reproachful term for those Northerners sympathetic to the South, mostly Democrats outspoken in their opposition to the Lincoln administration. They were especially strong in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where Clement L.
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 during the Civil War, by radical groups during World War I and, to a more limited extent, during World War II, and by large numbers during the Vietnam War, is usually considered in a separate category. The problem of conscientious objectors, although present in different forms since the beginning of the Christian era, became acute in World Wars I and II because of the urgent demands for manpower of the warring governments. The United States and Great Britain allowed members of recognized pacifistic religious groups to substitute for combat service: (1) noncombatant military service, (2) nonmilitary activity related to the war effort, or (3) activity considered socially valuable. Pacifists without recognized claim to exemption were liable to harsher treatment, and about 5,000 conscientious objectors were imprisoned in the United States between 1940 and 1945. The postwar Selective Service Act, passed in 1948 and amended in 1951, required that conscientious objection be based on religious belief and training that included belief in a Supreme Being. In 1970 the Supreme Court removed the religious requirement and allowed objection based on a deeply held and coherent ethical system with no reference to a Supreme Being. In 1971 the Supreme Court refused to allow objection to a particular war, a decision affecting thousands of objectors to the Vietnam War. Some 50,000–100,000 men are estimated to have left the United States to avoid being drafted to serve in that war.

Bibliography

See G. C. Field, Pacifism and Conscientious Objection (1945); M. Q. Sibley and P. E. Jacob, Conscription of Conscience (1952, repr. 1965); L. Schlissel, ed., Conscience in America (1968); G. C. Zahn, War, Conscience, and Dissent (1967); M. Ferber and S. Lynd, The Resistance (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
He escaped around May 24 with another Briton Ferry conscientious objector, Hwyrnos Jones.
One day when the two were talking, "He said to me, 'Somebody should write about those conscientious objectors,' " McQuiddy recalled.
In the 20th century, as pressures from non-overtly-religious conscientious objectors rose, the United States Supreme Court opened the gates a bit to officially identify more secular individuals as conscientious objectors.
Although conscientious objectors have found support within left-wing and Arab parties inIsrael, the Israeli Labor Party has criticised its actions, and said that although their protests against the occupation are valid and understandable, they are using the wrong way to express them.
I recognise that the status of the Conscientious Objectors is controversial, especially for families who lost relatives in the war, and I'm not entirely sure what is the most appropriate way of doing it.
Conservative Peter Cannon, councillor for Dartford, said: "I agree the absolutist conscientious objectors who refused to serve at all, unlike those conscientious objectors who took up other non-fighting roles, were wrong.
ANTI-militarist activists in the north yesterday succeeded in forcing the military to transfer a case involving a conscientious objector from a military to a 'constitutional' court.
The result is a somewhat detached analysis of one of the largest groups of conscientious objectors during the war.
As Hitler's shadow descended over Europe and FDR assembled an army, however, it was clear the conscientious objectors deserved a solution that didn't compromise their human rights.
In contrast to other accounts of men who refused to fight in the First World War, Telling Tales About Men does not simply recount the harsh treatment of those who objected to service in the armed forces, but rather shows how these Conscientious Objectors (COs) were viewed in contemporary British society.
military policy allows conscientious objectors (COs) to either apply for transfer to a non-combatant post (known as class 1-A-0) or to be discharged from the army (class 1-0).
of Lethbridge) discusses the roles of conscientious objectors in Canada during World War I, and how these individuals were at odds with a country that was eager to assume a more substantial role in global politics.