Constanta

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Constanţa

(kônstän`tsä), city (1990 pop. 355,402), SE Romania, on the Black Sea. It is the administrative center of DobrujaDobruja
, Rom. Dobrogea, Bulg. Dobrudza, historic region, c.9,000 sq mi (23,300 sq km), SE Europe, in SE Romania and NE Bulgaria, between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea.
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 and a major railroad junction and industrial city, but its chief importance derives from its role as Romania's main seaport. Petroleum (brought by pipeline from the Ploieşti oil fields), grain, and lumber are the leading exports. Besides handling general overseas trade, Constanţa is important in the transit traffic with the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia. It also serves as Romania's major naval and air base and as a seaside resort. The city was founded in the 7th cent. B.C. as the Greek colony of Tomi and came under Roman rule in 72 B.C. OvidOvid
(Publius Ovidius Naso) , 43 B.C.–A.D. 18, Latin poet, b. Sulmo (present-day Sulmona), in the Apennines. Although trained for the law, he preferred the company of the literary coterie at Rome.
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 lived in exile there. Constantine I (4th cent. A.D.) named the city Constantiniana and made it an episcopal see. It was captured by the Turks in 1413. Romania acquired it in 1878. There are several synagogues and mosques, an Orthodox cathedral, and a statue of Ovid, as well as many Roman and Byzantine remains. The regional archaeological museum and the marine biology station are also of interest.

Constanta

 

a district in the southeastern part of Rumania, in the southern part of the Dobruja plateau, on the Black Sea. Area, 7,100 sq km. Population, 513,300 (1970). The administrative center is the city of Constanţa.

The industry of Consṭanţa accounts for 2.1 percent of the country’s gross industrial output. Production of building materials accounts for 13 percent of the industry of the district, the food industry for 32 percent, textiles for 14 percent, machine building for 18 percent, chemicals for 7 percent, and wood products for 5 percent. Constanţa produces 5.3 percent of the gross agricultural output of the country. Wheat, maize, sunflowers, and crown flax are grown. Constanta is a major area of viticulture and vegetable farming. In 1971 there were 131,000 cattle, 216–000 hogs, and 913,000 sheep. The activity of the ports and sea fishing play an important role in the district’s economy. The Black Sea coast is an internationally famous health resort area.


Constanţa

 

a city and the principal port of Rumania; located on the Black Sea. Administrative center of the district of Consṭanţa.

The city and the adjacent internationally famous health resort area form a separate administrative unit. In 1970 the population of the city was 170,000 and of the resort area, 238,100. Constanţa is a transportation junction. It has an airport, and pipelines from the Ploie§ti region pass through it. In 1970 the freight turnover of the port was more than 12.5 million tons. Outgoing freight includes oil products, cement, grain, and wood. Incoming freight includes machines, equipment, and apatites. There are large grain elevators, oil tanks, and warehouses. The city is the base of a sea-going fishing fleet. The main branches of industry are food processing (flour milling, baking of bread and rolls, meat packing, vegetable-oil extraction, fish canning, wine-making, fruit canning, and candy manufacture) and machine building (shipyards, auto repair and machine shops). There are enterprises of the wool, clothing, furniture, building materials, and pulp and paper industries. There is a heat and electric power plant producing 110,000 kilowatts. Industrial enterprises are concentrated in the southwestern part of the city near the rail-road station and the port. There are archaeological and art museums.

In the sixth century B.C., on the site of Constanta, Ionian Greeks founded the polis of Tomis, which was conquered by the Romans in 29 B.C. The Roman poet Ovid lived there in exile from A.D. 8 to A.D. 17. The emperor Constantine the Great (ruled from 306 to 337) changed the name of the city from Tomis to Constantiniana. From 1413 to 1878 the city was under the Ottoman yoke and was known as Kóstendje. In 1878 it was made part of Rumania.

The city is situated on a high coast and has broad, straight streets with plenty of green areas. After 1945 a railroad station, a theater, and a sports arena were built. The main highway and the port area were rebuilt.

Constanţa has remains of Hellenistic and Roman buildings, including a commercial building with a mosaic floor, dating from the second or third century. There are other remains of a Byzantine basilica of the fifth to sixth centuries, fortifications of the fifth to sixth centuries, and Turkish mosques dating from the 18th to 19th centuries.

Constanţa is the center of Rumania’s Black Sea health resorts. North and south of the city, health resort complexes are being built along a 50-km strip of the coast. The most important of these are the health resorts of Mamaia and Eforie, with their maritime climate and therapeutic muds.

REFERENCES

Canarache, V. Tomis. Bucharest, 1961.
Albu, F. Constanţa. Bucharest, 1964.

Constanţa

a port and resort in SE Romania, on the Black Sea: founded by the Greeks in the 6th century bc and rebuilt by Constantine the Great (4th century); exports petroleum. Pop.: 265 000 (2005 est.)