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In ancient Rome:

Constantius I. (Flavius Valerius Constantius Chlorus; the nickname Chlorus means “the pale”). Born 264, in Illyria; died 306, in Eboracum, Britain. Emperor in 305–306.

Constantius I was the father of Constantine the Great. He rose to the position of military leader under Diocletian. In 293 he was named Caesar of the Western Empire. In 305, after the abdication of Diocletian, he received the title Augustus. Constantius I carried out campaigns against Germanic tribes and suppressed rebellion in Britain in 297.

Constantius II. (Flavius Julius Constantius). Born 317, in Sirmium; died 361, in Mopsucrenae, Cilicia. Emperor from 337 to 361 (Caesar from 324, Augustus from 337).

When the empire was divided among the sons of Constantine the Great in 337, Constantius II took Asia and Egypt and, later (339), the Balkan Peninsula. After the death of his brothers (Constantine II in 340 and Constans in 350) and his victory over the usurper Magnentius in 352, Constantius II restored unity to the empire and became the sole ruler (353). He strove to establish the political supremacy of Constantinople over Rome. His palace was noted for great splendor. The bureaucracy with its many spies played a significant role during his reign. He supported Arianism and banished those who upheld the Nicene Creed, including Athanasius of Alexandria. He closed pagan temples, confiscating their property, and forbade the offering of sacrifices. Constantius II died during a campaign against the Persians.

Constantius III. (Flavius Constantius). Died 421. General of Emperor Honorius. In 421 he was co-ruler with Honorius and bore the title Augustus.


Stein, E. Histoire du Bas-Empire, vol. 1. Paris, 1959.


References in classic literature ?
The destruction of Crispus, a young prince of rare towardness, by Constantinus the Great, his father, was in like manner fatal to his house; for both Constantinus and Constance, his sons, died violent deaths; and Constantius, his other son, did little better; who died indeed of sickness, but after that Julianus had taken arms against him.
Pauli 8,6) Lest this should trouble anyone and incline them to doubt, it was corroborated in the reign of Constantius, with the whole world as witness.
The Christian Emperor Constantius cruelly enforced the Semi-Arian heresy--that God the Son was of a similar substance (homoiousios) as God the Father--which stood opposed to the Nicene Creed's proclamation that Jesus and God were of the same substance (homoousios).
Let us not forget how the hundred-year-old Cordobese bishop was cast into oblivion by the whole of western Christianity (Nieto, 2003, 20 ff), including his own diocese (almost a dannatio memoriae), following the confusing events that surrounded his move to Mediolanum and his consequent detention by Constantius II in 356; his presumed fall into Arian heresy (to which he had been opposed half of his life), and his immediate death in Sirmium, probably towards the end of 357 (cfr.
This work was first dated to the reign of Constantius II by the famous English scholar and philanthropist, Thomas Tyrwhitt in 1781.
Here, three American characters represent three points of view: Constantius, a critic, believes that Eliot's novel is written "quite in the George Sand manner.
Enter 2 Villaines to them Vortiger seemeing to solisitt them giues them gold, then sweares them Exit Vortiger Enter to them Constantius in priuate meditation, they rudely Come to him strike downe his booke and draw there swordes vpon him he fairely spredds his armes, and yeilds to there furye, at which they seeme to be ouer come with pittye, Butt lookeing vpon the gold kills him as hee turns his back and hurry away his body.
Objective: "The reign of the Roman emperor Constantius II (337 361) was instrumental in shaping early models of a united Europe.
6) In the narrative Jerome even refers to the mummified body of a faun that had been brought to the emperor Constantius for inspection.
Themistius' political theory (or theology) is based on the paradigm of the Republic with a few Hellenistic elements (the king is a philosopher, he is the perfect image god, and his main virtue is ^iThvOpronia), whereas Julian's philosophy was based on the Laws (the king is only a guardian of the laws, he needs to imitate the way of life that existed at the time of Cronus, and requires help from the gods, demons and philosophers; his main virtue is piety or shaepsia, as evidenced in his second Panegyric in Honour of the Emperor Constantius, Or.
Peppin, a king of the Franks who was eager to establish Roman practice in France, asked the byzantine Emperor Constantius V for an organ fit for the service of the Church.
33) The other main works where Ambrose deals with the theme of social justice and work are: De excessu fratris (378), Epistola 2 to Constantius (379), Hexaemeron (Holy Week 386), Expositio evangelii secundum Lucam, De Helia, De Tobia, Explanationes super Psalmum 118, Explanatio Psalmi 1, Epistola 73.