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Consulate,1799–1804, in French history, form of government established after the coup of 18 Brumaire (Nov. 9–10, 1799), which ended the DirectoryDirectory,
group of five men who held the executive power in France according to the constitution of the year III (1795) of the French Revolution. They were chosen by the new legislature, by the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients; each year one director, chosen
..... Click the link for more information. . Three consuls were appointed to rule France—Napoleon Bonaparte (see Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life
The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
..... Click the link for more information. ), Emmanuel Joseph SieyèsSieyès, Emmanuel Joseph
, 1748–1836, French revolutionary and statesman. He was a clergyman before the Revolution and was known as Abbé Sieyès.
..... Click the link for more information. , and Roger Ducos. Sieyès and Ducos were soon replaced by Jean Jacques Régis de CambacérèsCambacérès, Jean Jacques Régis de
, 1753–1824, French revolutionary and legislator. He was deputy to the National Convention and to the Council of Five Hundred, second consul under Napoleon (1799–1804), and archchancellor of the empire.
..... Click the link for more information. and C. F. LebrunLebrun, Charles François
, 1739–1824, French statesman. A moderate member of the Constituent Assembly after the start of the French Revolution, he was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror. Following the coup of Napoleon Bonaparte (Nov.
..... Click the link for more information. , and the Consulate became little more than a scheme for autocratic government by Bonaparte, who was made first consul for life in 1802 and emperor in 1804.
the period in French history from Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup d’etat of Nov. 9, 1799 (18 Brumaire, Year VIII) to May 18, 1804, when he was proclaimed emperor. During this period power was nominally vested in three consuls elected for ten years, but in actuality it was held by the first consul, Bonaparte. The original second and third consuls, E. J. Sieyès and R. Ducos, were replaced by J. Cambacérès and C. Lebrun under the Constitution of the Year VIII. In August 1802, Bonaparte and the two other consuls were proclaimed consuls of the French Republic for life.
an agency of a country’s foreign relations, established on the territory of another state (with the latter’s consent) to perform certain functions. The area to which the consul is assigned and the location of the consulate are determined by an agreement between the two countries. The rights, privileges, and immunities of the consulate include the right to use its country’s flag and emblem, inviolability of its premises, exemption from taxes, inviolability of consular archives, and freedom of contact between the consulate and its government, diplomatic representatives, and other consulates of its government wherever they may be, employing communications media, codes, and diplomatic and consular couriers.