Vocabulary

(redirected from Controlled vocabulary)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

Vocabulary

 

all the words (the lexicon) of a language, including neologisms, dialect and slang words, and terminology. A vocabulary’s scope and composition depend on the nature and level of the speaker’s economic, social, and cultural life. A vocabulary is an organized system in which words are united or contrasted through various relationships of content, as exemplified by synonyms, homonyms, antonyms, and semantic fields.

Words in frequent and wide use constitute the active vocabulary, and specialized or rarely used words (archaisms, neologisms, and terminology) constitute the passive vocabulary. The boundaries between the active and passive vocabulary are not fixed, and over a language’s course of development words shift from one group to the other. Examples are Russian proshenie (“petition”), prisluga (“maidservant”), guverner (“tutor”), and gorodovoi (“policeman”), which have passed from the active to the passive vocabulary.

Certain words are actively used by all speakers of a language over a lengthy period of history, for example, names of parts of the body or natural phenomena, terms related to kinship, and words designating basic activities, traits, and qualities. Such words are termed the basic vocabulary and are subject to the fewest changes. Frequency dictionaries indicate the relationship between the active and passive vocabulary at a given stage of development, generally within the limits of certain styles, genres, or types of speech.

As society develops, vocabularies continually expand owing to the formation of words through derivation and the assimilation of borrowings. During various epochs words from Scandinavian, Finnish, Turkic, Church Slavonic, Greek, and later from Latin and the Romance and Germanic languages entered the Russian vocabulary, whose base consists of Common Slavic and native Russian words. The vocabulary of German has absorbed words from Latin, French, Italian, English, and several other languages. These layers of borrowed words within a language’s vocabulary reflect the cultural and historical ties between peoples and constitute a proof—sometimes the only proof—of contacts among ancient peoples. Vocabularies are recorded, although not completely, in dictionaries.

REFERENCES

Ozhegov, S. I. “K voprosu ob izmeneniiakh slovarnogo sostava russkogo iazyka v sovetskuiu epokhu.” Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1953, no. 2.
Borovoi, L. Ia. Put’slova, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1963.
Iakubovich, T. D. Novyeslova. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Ufimtseva, A. A. Slovo v leksiko-semanticheskoi sisteme iazyka. Moscow, 1968.
References in periodicals archive ?
The strength of a controlled vocabulary devoted solely to all aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is that it includes terms commonly used among those affected by HIV but not reflected in other schemes.
We utilized ACM Computing Classification Scheme as controlled vocabulary in SKOS format using UTF-8 encoding.
Controlled vocabulary use in Web and commercial systems also varies.
Automatic categorization is the process by which technology is used to create clusters of documents based on criteria specified by the user, usually via a pre-supplied taxonomy, thesaurus, or controlled vocabulary list.
The use of date, author, publisher, and other limiters improves the usability of these databases, beyond their rudimentary use of controlled vocabulary and subjects.
They expose children to relatively few words, and the texts are often written with a consciously controlled vocabulary.
Keywords in each entry provide the basis for the index, help users learn the controlled vocabulary, and serve as abbreviated annotations.
Parent company Getty Images' controlled vocabulary allows customers to perform keyword searches in any of 12 native languages.
diSCOver[TM] - controlled vocabulary development and semantic enrichment
Optional services may include extension of the core metadata scheme to meet the specific needs of the agency audience, customized controlled vocabularies and taxonomies, metadata creation and controlled vocabulary indexing, quality assurance capabilities, and value-added subject matter expertise.
Traditional concept-based indexing uses controlled vocabulary or natural language to express what an image is or what it is about.
Controlled Vocabulary Administration: This allows users to add and remove terms from their controlled vocabulary, enter regular expressions, add synonyms, and more;

Full browser ?