(konventsionnye zapreshcheniia), in Russia, orders given by railroad administrations to stop freight shipments temporarily in certain sectors or to prohibit the receipt of freight at a particular station for technical reasons. Examples of these reasons would include washouts and damaged bridges.
The term “convention stoppages” arose in Russia in the second half of the 19th century when most of the railroads in the country were privately owned and freight was shipped according to rules instituted in accordance with agreements (conventions) adopted by all the Russian railroads. Similar generally binding rules continue to exist today in those capitalist countries where railroads are privately owned. In the 1870’s and 1880’s international congresses and conferences were held on questions of rail transportation; at these congresses the problems of building and operating railroads were worked out. In 1922 the International Union of Railways (IUR) was formed; it coordinates relations among the railroads of Western Europe and when necessary implements convention stoppages.
In the USSR, where all railroads belong to the state, the term “convention stoppages” is not used. In 1956 the socialist member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance formed the Organization for Railroad Cooperation. The organization coordinates the work of rail transportation; it also controls convention stoppages when technical factors prohibit international freight shipments on one or another rail sector or the receipt of freight at the designated station on one of the railroads of the country belonging to the organization.
REFERENCESMezhdunarodnye zheleznodorozhnye soobshcheniia. Moscow, 1959.
Zheleznye dorogi mira. Moscow, 1959. (Translated from English.)
A. V. GRISHIN