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device used for heatingheating,
means of making a building comfortably warm relative to a colder outside temperature. Old, primitive methods of heating a building or a room within it include the open fire, the fireplace, and the stove.
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 or for cooking food. The stove was long regarded as a cooking device supplementary to the fireplace, near which it stood; its stovepipe led into the fireplace chimney. It was not until about the middle of the 19th cent., when the coal-burning range with removable lids came into general use, that the fireplace was finally supplanted as the chief cooking agency.

Early Stoves

As early as Roman times stoves made of clay, tile, or earthenware were in use in central and N Europe. Early Swiss stoves of clay or brick, without chimneys, were built against the outer house wall, with an opening to the outside through which they were fueled and through which the smoke could escape. Scarcity of fuel made an economical heat-retaining device necessary, and these primitive stoves, built of clay, brick, tile, or plastered masonry, became common in the Scandinavian countries, Holland, Germany, and N France. Some exquisitely colored and glazed tile stoves, dating from the 16th and 17th cent., show traces of Moorish influence. In Russia large brick stoves formed a partition between two rooms. Because of the very long flue, which wound back and forth inside the structure, these could be heated for some hours with a small amount of light fuel.

Iron Stoves

A cast-iron stove made in China before A.D. 200 has been found, but it was not until late in the 15th cent. that cast-iron stoves were first made in Europe. These consisted of plates that were grooved to fit together in the shape of a box. Probably the earliest of this type were earthenware stoves enclosed in iron castings decorated with biblical scenes and armorial and arabesque designs. They often bore inscriptions in Norse, German, Dutch, French, or sometimes Latin, and some were dated. Many were highly artistic specimens of handicraft. A typical early iron stove is the wall-jamb, or five-plate, stove, which was fueled from an adjoining room.

Dutch, Swedish, and German settlers of the American colonies, especially those of Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, brought with them five-plate stoves or molds for casting them. Iron founding began c.1724 in America, and old forges or foundries have left records of five-plate stoves sold in 1728 as Dutch stoves or, less commonly, carved stoves. These continued to be made until Revolutionary times, when they were superseded by the English, or 10-plate, stove, which stood free of the wall and had a draft or fuel door. These 10-plate devices could cook and warm at the same time and replaced, in part, the large masonry baking oven, usually built outside the house.

The Franklin stove, invented in 1743 and used for heating, was the lineal descendant of the fireplace, being at first only a portable down-draft iron fireplace that could be set into, or before, the chimney. It was soon elaborated into what was known as the Pennsylvania fireplace, with a grate and sliding doors. In common use for a period after the Revolution, it was followed by a variety of heaters burning wood and coal. The base burner, or magazine coal heater, was widely used before the general adoption of central heating.

Modern Stoves

Since gas and electricity have become generally available, the wood-burning or coal-burning range has been largely superseded by a wide variety of cooking apparatus, using natural or manufactured gas, oil, acetylene, gasoline, or electricity as fuel. In areas of the world where there is abundant sunshine, solar stoves are becoming increasingly popular. Their heat is supplied by the sun's rays, which are focused by means of a concave reflector. The microwave oven uses radiowaves of high frequency to cook foods very quickly without heating the oven itself.


A chamber within which a fuel-air mixture is burned to provide heat, the heat itself being radiated outward from the chamber; used for space heating, process-fluid heating, and steel blast furnaces.


any heating apparatus, such as a kiln
References in periodicals archive ?
An improvement notice has also been served on a cafe owner in Rhyl where the council found the gas cooking range had not been maintained in a safe condition.
Some features are nor immediately apparent but are delightfully thoughtful, like the foot-deep drawers set in cabinets beside the cooking range.
The icy bundles were wrapped in cardboard boxes and warmed back to life in the Kidd family's wood-burning Aga cooking range.
When it dropped to thirty below, we kept four woodstoves burning: the kitchen cooking range, the parlor Glenwood, the new Jtul, and in Jane's study the dateless old tin and iron stove we found in the back chamber.
Tenders are invited for Supply of ss cooking range single burner 04 nos
Every log cabin takes you to another level of luxury through beautifully designed spaces, with the high ceilings in living and dining areas, spacious bedrooms with walk-in closets, en-suite toilets and baths, and a semi-furnished kitchen equipped with a complete cabinet system, refrigerator, oven, cooking range, and range hood.
Firefighters spent more than nine hours at the Castle Street restaurant last Tuesday, after a blaze in the cooking range engulfed the building in smoke.
Motorists and passers-by along the route are guaranteed the highly unusual sight of seeing Pete harnessed to Agatha, a cooking range on wheels.
The other winners of the draw were Yousaf Ahemed Al Said who won a Ikon 40" LED TV, while Sarfaraz Husain, Salim Saif Ahmed, Al Ayham Sami al Batashi and Praveen Sanga won an Ikon fourA[degrees]burner cooking range, an Ikon washing machine, Ikon Tablet 3G and Ikon Halogen airfrA[degrees]yer respectively.
The hub of the house is the large country farmhouse kitchen/dining/ living room with double Aga cooking range.
CARDIFF fish and chip shop cooking range supplier Preston & Thomas has gone into administration after 100 years in business.
Communal bread ovens were popular because early colliery houses did not feature a cooking range nor did most villages have a baker's shop.