coin

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coin,

piece of metal, usually a disk of gold, silver, nickel, bronze, copper, aluminum, or a combination of such metals, stamped by authority of a government as a guarantee of its real or exchange value and used as moneymoney,
term that actually refers to two concepts: the abstract unit of account in terms of which the value of goods, services, and obligations can be compared; and anything that is widely established as a means of payment.
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. Coinage was probably invented independently in Lydia or in the Aegean Islands and in China before 700 B.C. The earliest known example is an electrum coin (c.700 B.C.) of Lydia. The first U.S. mintmint,
place where legal coinage is manufactured. The name is derived from the temple of Juno Moneta, Rome, where silver coins were made as early as 269 B.C. Mints existed earlier elsewhere, as in Lydia and in Greece; from there coinage was introduced into Italy. The first U.S.
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 was established in 1792. Mottoes used on many U.S. coins are "E Pluribus UnumE Pluribus Unum
[Lat.,=one made out of many], motto on the Great Seal of the United States and on many U.S. coins. Although selected in 1776 by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson for the Continental Congress, it was not officially adopted as a national motto
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" (1795) and "In God We Trust" (1864).

Early coins were die-struck by hand and showed many individual variations. Standardized coins date from the use of a mill and screw machine (invented c.1561). Coins are usually stamped from rolled metal blanks, then milled. The final product bears a design impressed upon it between the upper and lower dies of a coining press. Milled or lettered edges have been used since the 17th cent. to discourage the removal of slivers of metal, especially from gold or silver coins.

No gold coins have circulated in the United States since 1934, when the domestic gold standard was abandoned. Until 1965, silver was used in the minting of dimes and quarters, but by the 1980s silver had disappeared from American coinage altogether. The cost of minting a penny has led a number of nations, including Australia (1964), New Zealand (1989), and Canada (2013) to end the circulation of the coin. In the mid-1990s, the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
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 developed a common currency for its members. The new currency, called the euro, was inaugurated in 1999; coins and notes went into circulation in 2002, replacing the currencies of most EU members (see European Monetary SystemEuropean Monetary System,
arrangement by which most nations of the European Union (EU) linked their currencies to prevent large fluctuations relative to one another. It was organized in 1979 to stabilize foreign exchange and counter inflation among members.
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). Canada introduced the first colored coin for circulation in 2004; it was a quarter featuring a poppy.

See also numismaticsnumismatics
, collection and study of coins, medals, and related objects as works of art and as sources of information. The coin and the medal preserve old forms of writing, portraits of eminent persons, and reproductions of lost works of art; they also assist in the study of
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.

coin, quoin

1.The corner of a building.
2. The stones or bricks which form the corner.
3. A wedge.

quoin, coign, coin

stone quoins set in brickwork
In masonry, a hard stone or brick used, with similar ones, to reinforce an external corner or edge of a wall or the like; often distinguished decoratively from adjacent masonry; may be imitated in non-load-bearing materials. Occasionally imitated, for decorative purposes, by wood that has been finished to look like masonry.
References in periodicals archive ?
The newly developed T-Coin structure was made possible by manufacturing techniques that control the shape and thickness of the copper coins to micron levels, along with machining pressure rate control techniques that prevent damage when copper coins make contact with the through-hole plating.
Although they are referred to as copper coins, they are in fact copper-coated steel.
She also reported a bag containing 1,000 copper coins, a gold necklace worth Dh18,000 and a gold chain worth Dh225, as well as three rings worth over Dh4,000 as missing.
Summary: Muscat: It seems that five copper coins with Arabic inscriptions and found in northern Australia .
The copper coins are believed to be among the first ever produced in sub-Saharan Africa, and have only been found outside Africa twice - once in Oman at the start of the last century, and again by Isenberg in 1944.
They stole jewellery including a pair of gold hoop style earrings, a gold Russian puzzle ring, a gold curb chain, a gold zircon and sapphire ring, a silver topped jewellery box, a plain gold cameo ring, a pair of gold amethyst earrings, a silver identity bracelet, a black leather-style jewellery box and a small silver rocking horse jewellery box containing copper coins.
And when trade evolved, it included payments in gold coins mainly with the introduction of silver and copper coins later on due to gold scarcity.
Mr Lines said Allen went out several times, and the last time came in out of breath and sweating with bank statements and cards, phones and a jar containing copper coins, which the Crown says were stolen from Mr Dunford's home.
All items of value - accounting machines, typewriters, steel-bound and other ledgers, cash - had to be stored in the strong rooms at night using a hand-controlled lift and deliveries of pounds 240 of copper coins had to be loaded and weighed weekly.
It is also used to describe a multitude of loose change - like copper coins.
The exact location of the find, which is believed to include some 4,000 copper coins, is being kept a secret to protect the site.
Selgin (2009) argues that the privately produced redeemable copper coins of Great Britain were fiduciary media, since it was not practical for producers to keep "100 percent reserves" and undergo the costs of mining and minting.