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(kŏpts), the native Christian minority of Egypt; estimates of the number of Copts in Egypt range from 5% to 17% of the population. Copts are not ethnically distinct from other Egyptians; they are a cultural remnant, i.e., the Christians who have not been converted to Islam in the 14 centuries since the Muslim invasion. The Coptic language, now extinct, was the form of the ancient Egyptian languageEgyptian language,
extinct language of ancient Egypt, a member of the Afroasiatic family of languages (see Afroasiatic languages). The development of ancient Egyptian is usually divided into four periods: (1) Old Egyptian, spoken and written in Egypt during the IV to VI
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 spoken in early Christian times; by the 12th cent. it was superseded by Arabic.

Most Copts belong to the Coptic Church, an autonomous Christian sect that officially adheres to MonophysitismMonophysitism
[Gr.,=belief in a single nature], a heresy of the 5th and 6th cent., which grew out of a reaction against Nestorianism. It was anticipated by Apollinarianism and was continuous with the principles of Eutyches, whose doctrine had been rejected in 451 at Chalcedon
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, which was declared (451) a heresy by the Council of Chalcedon. The church is in communion with the Jacobite ChurchJacobite Church
, officially Syrian Orthodox Church, Christian church of Syria, Iraq, and India, recognizing the Syrian Orthodox patriarch of Antioch as its spiritual head, regarded by Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox as heretical. It was founded (6th cent.
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 (also Monophysite). The Ethiopian Orthodox Church was long part of the Coptic Church, but changes in the mid-20th cent. led to autonomy for the former in 1959 when an independent Ethiopian patriarch was consecrated. In rites and customs the Coptic Church resembles other Eastern churches; however, Copts circumcise their infants before baptism and observe certain Mosaic dietary laws. Coptic, Greek, and Arabic languages are all used ceremonially. The chief bishop, the patriarch of Alexandria, is in direct succession to the 5th-century patriarchs who embraced Monophysitism; he is entitled pope. The current pope, Tawadros II, was enthroned in 2012.

Among the Copts a small minority are in communion with the Roman Catholic pope; these "Catholic Copts" have their own organization and churches but share the rites and practices of the Coptic Church. This community began to develop in the 18th cent. Protestant missionaries have established some Coptic congregations. Besides Copts there are Orthodox communities in Egypt, mainly Greek and Syrian; the Orthodox patriarch of Alexandria traces his succession to the Catholic patriarchs of the 5th cent. There are also many Catholic Syrians, mainly Melchites and Maronites. In recent decades, Copts have been the object of attacks by Muslim fundamentalists and extremists in Egypt, especially in the years since the overthrow in 2013 of President MorsiMorsi, Mohamed
, 1951–, Egyptian engineer and political leader, grad. Cairo Univ. (B.A. 1975. M.A. 1978), Univ. of Southern California (Ph.D. 1982). He taught engineering at California State Univ., Northridge, and after returning to Egypt in 1985, at Zagazig Univ.
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, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, by the military.


See D. Attwater, The Christian Churches of the East (2 vol., 1947–48); E. Wakin, A Lonely Minority: The Story of Egypt's Copts (1963); M. Kāmil, Coptic Egypt (1968); O. F. A. Meindarus, Christian Egypt: Faith and Life (1970).



Egyptians who profess Christianity.

The Copts live chiefly in the cities of the Arab Republic of Egypt (such as Asyut, Akhmim, and Cairo); there are also small communities of Copts in the Sudan, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait. Population, more than 2 million (mid-1960’s, esti-mate). The Copts speak Arabic (the Coptic language, widely spoken in the past, has been preserved only as a liturgical language). The majority of the Copts belong to the Monophysite Coptic Church, which was widespread in Egypt from the fifth century to the Arab conquest (639–642). The Muslim conquerors achieved the Islamization of the local population through various administrative and economic measures—lands owned by monasteries were given to mosques and non-Muslims were subject to higher taxes (on land, for example). As a result, Christianity survived only among some of the town dwellers who were free from land taxes.

Coptic Christianity acquired certain Islamic traits: the Copts pray facing the East, they take off their shoes at the entrance to a church but do not remove their head coverings, and so forth. The Coptic Church has its own churches, monasteries, and schools and is headed by a patriarch. The Copts have their own special calendar, which begins with Aug. 29, 284. The Copts (traditionally) work as servants, artisans, merchants, and laborers; a small number are peasants.


From the fourth to the seventh centuries, before the Arab conquest, the Copts created a distinctive art, which had absorbed the cultural heritage of ancient Egypt and antiquity. Architecture is represented by basilicas (at the White, Red, and Bawit monasteries), domed sepulchres (in al-Bagalat), and two- to four-story dwellings. Imitative art is represented by stone and wood reliefs, paintings, miniatures, and wax painting on boards; decorative and applied art is represented by wood and bone carving and highly artistic fabrics. The realistic images of fourthand early fifth-century Coptic art, which were genre works or were borrowed from Hellenic mythology, were replaced in the fifth and sixth centuries by conventional pictures on Christian subjects; motifs of Near Eastern art (including lion hunting scenes) became widespread in the late sixth and early seventh centuries.


Bok, V. G. Materialy po arkheologii khristianskogo Egipta. St. Petersburg, 1901.
Mat’e, M., and K. Liapunova. Khudozhestvennye tkani Koptskogo Egipta. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Koptskie tkani: Sobranie Gos. muzeia izobrazitel’nykh iskusstv im. A. S. Pushkina.: Moskva. Compiled, with an introduction and catalog by R. Shurinova. [Album.] Leningrad, 1967.
Cramer, M. Das christlich-koptische Ägypten einst und heute: Eine Orientierung. Wiesbaden, 1959.


References in periodicals archive ?
The report denied violations against Copts in Egypt by providing evidence on state keenness on preserving their rights.
Copts are fiercely proud of their Egyptian heritage that dates back to the age of the pyramids as early as 3000 B.
But in the Arab World's most populous nation, where the ranks of the Copts are dramatically dwarfed by the roughly 90-95% of the population who follow Islam, size matters.
We as Copts are paying the price of Morsi's ouster.
Expatriates, particularly Copts, reacted similar outrage.
Shenouda, who for many years represented a gravity center for the Copts, was always able to establish balance within the Church, managed the relations with the state while exerting pressures on it without using violence or an instigative political or sectarian rhetoric and always settled for abstinence as a way to express his anger toward the state's policies or the events targeting the Copts, disappeared at a turning point and during a critical stage in which the Copts fear over their future and rights.
He will be buried in his native Egypt, where Copts are estimated to make up 10 percent of the country's population of approximately 80 million.
Several Egyptian political parties, including the influential Muslim Brotherhood, have fielded Copts on their tickets for the November elections.
In response, Copts gathered at Maspero, staging a prolonged sit-in to demand the arrest and punishment of the perpetrators of the Imbaba violence, as well as those responsible for attacks on churches elsewhere.
Head of the Coptic Orthodox Church in Lebanon and Syria Father Rouis al-Orshalimi said that "Coptic churches have witnessed aggressions because they refuse normalization of relations with Israel, and all who assault Copts are agents of Israel.
At the same time, the new, more secular Personal Status Law further reduced the autonomy of the Coptic community, despite allowing the Copts self-rule in matters of family affairs.
The killings, which were condemned by Pope Benedict XVI, sparked outrage among Egypt's Copts, who make up about 10 percent of the country's 80 million people, and led to clashes with police.