Corinth


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Corinth

(kŏr`ĭnth) or

Kórinthos

(kô`rĭnthôs), city (1991 pop. 27,412), capital of Corinth prefecture, S Greece, in the NE Peloponnesus, on the Gulf of Corinth. It is a port and major transportation center trading in olives, tobacco, raisins, and wine. Founded in 1858 after the destruction of Old Corinth by an earthquake, it was rebuilt after another earthquake in 1928. It formerly was known as New Corinth. Old Corinth, just southwest of modern Corinth, is now a village. Strategically situated on the Isthmus of Corinth and protected by the fortifications on the AcrocorinthusAcrocorinthus
, acropolis, or citadel, of Corinth, overlooking the ancient city. Some ruins of the acropolis remain. The Acrocorinthus was the site of a temple of Aphrodite. It was strongly fortified in the Middle Ages.
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, Corinth was one of the largest, wealthiest, most powerful, and oldest cities of ancient Greece. Dating from Homeric times, it was conquered by the Dorians. In the 7th and 6th cent. B.C., under the tyrants Cypselus, his son Periander, and their successors, it became a flourishing maritime power. Syracuse, Kérkira, Potidaea, and Apollonia were among its colonies. The natural rival of Athens, Corinth was traditionally allied with Sparta. Athenian assistance to the rebellious Corinthian colonies was a direct cause of the Peloponnesian WarPeloponnesian War
, 431–404 B.C., decisive struggle in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta. It ruined Athens, at least for a time. The rivalry between Athens' maritime domain and Sparta's land empire was of long standing. Athens under Pericles (from 445 B.C.
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 (431–404 B.C.). During the Corinthian War (395–387 B.C.), however, Corinth joined with Athens against the tyrannical rule of Sparta. After the battle of Chaeronea (338 B.C.) Corinth was garrisoned by Macedonian troops. It became (224 B.C.) a leading member of the Achaean LeagueAchaean League
, confederation of cities on the Gulf of Corinth. The First Achaean League, about which little is known, was formed presumably before the 5th cent. B.C. and lasted through the 4th cent. B.C. Its purpose was mutual protection against pirates.
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 and in 146 B.C. was destroyed by the victorious Romans. Julius Caesar restored it (46 B.C.) and also reestablished the Isthmian gamesIsthmian games
, athletic events organized c.581 B.C. They were held at Corinth in the spring of the first and third years of the Olympiad, and they honored Palaemon as well as Poseidon.
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. Corinth was again laid waste by the invading Goths (A.D. 395) and by an earthquake in 521. Early in the 13th cent., Corinth was conquered by Geoffroi I de Villehardouin following the Fourth Crusade. It was taken by the Ottoman Turks in 1458, and in 1687 was seized by Venice, which lost it to the Turks in 1715. In 1822 it was captured by Greek insurgents. Ancient ruins at Old Corinth include the marketplace, fountains, the temple of Apollo, and a Roman amphitheater. Paul preached here and wrote two epistles to the infant Corinthian church.

Corinth,

city (1990 pop. 11,820), seat of Alcorn co., extreme NE Miss., near the Tenn. line, in a livestock and farm area; founded c.1855. Manufactures include construction materials, machinery, furniture, apparel, transportation equipment, and prepared foods. During the Civil War, Corinth was a strategic railroad center, abandoned to Gen. H. W. Halleck's Union army in May, 1862, after the battle of ShilohShiloh, battle of,
Apr. 6–7, 1862, one of the great battles of the American Civil War. The battle took its name from Shiloh Church, a meetinghouse c.3 mi (5 km) SSW of Pittsburg Landing, which was a community in Hardin co., Tenn., 9 mi (14.
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. General Rosecrans repulsed the Confederates under generals Earl Van Doren and Sterling Price in heavy fighting there, Oct. 3–4, 1862. Corinth National Cemetery (est. 1866) has 6,000 graves.

Corinth

 

(Korinthos), an ancient Greek city-state on the Isthmus of Corinth, 6 km southwest of the modern city of Corinth. Excavations at the site of ancient Corinth have uncovered traces of a settlement from the second millennium B.C.

Corinth was founded by the Dorians, probably in the tenth century B.C. In myths, Corinth was considered the home of Medea, Sisyphus, and Bellerophon. In the eighth and seventh centuries Corinth established many colonies, including Syracuse, Corcyra, and Potidaea, and maintained trade relations with Miletus, Lydia, Phrygia, Cyprus, and Egypt. The Corinthians were particularly active along the coasts of the Adriatic and Ionian seas. Corinth had two harbors, Lechaeum on the west and Cenchreae on the east. The city-state’s citadel, Acrocorinth (575 m above sea level), dominated the southern routes from central Greece. Corinth was famous for its bronze artifacts and pottery.

In the eighth century an oligarchy was established in Corinth. After a fierce struggle between the demos and the clan aristocracy in the seventh century, the oligarchy was overthrown and a tyranny established. The period of Corinth’s greatest flowering coincided with the rule of the tyrants Cypselus and Periander (c. 657–585), when a strong navy was built, many colonies planted, and the city greatly expanded. The oligarchy was restored soon after Periander’s death. At the end of the sixth century Corinth joined the Peloponnesian League, headed by Sparta. During the Graeco-Persian Wars, Corinthians fought at Thermopylae and Plataea and in the naval battles of Salamis and Mycale.

Rivalry between Athens and Corinth was a major cause of the Peloponnesian War (431–404). Corinth led Argos, Thebes, Athens, and other city-states in waging the Corinthian War (395–387) against Sparta, which was becoming increasingly powerful.

During the Hellenistic period Corinth was occupied by Macedonian forces from 338 to 197, excluding the years 243–222. In the second century B.C. it joined the other Greek city-states in their struggle against the Romans, as a result of which it was destroyed by the Romans in 146 and its inhabitants sold into slavery.

In 46 B.C. Caesar settled freed slaves in Corinth, and when, in 27 B.C., the Roman province of Achaea was formed, Corinth became its capital. Sacked by the Goths in A.D. 395 and again in 521, it was rebuilt in the reign of Justinian.

Since 1896, with some interruptions, Corinth has been extensively excavated by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Partially preserved monuments include the majestic and austere Temple of Apollo, an outstanding work of archaic architecture (Doric peripteros, c. 550); the sanctuary of Apollo (Roman peristyle and temple of the fourth century B.C.); a Roman agora with propylaea (A.D. 15), temples, and the fountain of Peirene; Greek and Roman dwellings; and temples, an odeum, and a theater from Roman times. Among other remains found near Corinth are the classical and medieval fortifications on Acrocorinth; the ruins of a sanctuary of Poseidon (fifth century B.C.), a stadium (early fourth century B.C.), and a Roman theater and baths, all on the isthmus; and the sixth-century fortress built by Justinian and other vestiges of classical and medieval fortifications. Finds from the excavations are preserved in the Archaeo-logical Museum of Corinth.

REFERENCES

Corinth. Results of Excavations, vols. 1–16. Cambridge (Mass.), 1929–66. (American School of Classical Studies at Athens.)
Will, E. Korinthiaka. Paris, 1955. (Bibliography.)

Corinth

 

a city and port in Greece, on the Isthmus of Corinth, at the entrance to the Corinth Canal. It is the administrative center of the nomes of Corinth (the Peloponnesus region). Population, 20,800 (1971). Railroad junction and commercial center. Currants and olive oil are produced and exported. The city was founded in 1818. It was destroyed by earthquakes in 1858 and 1928. Nearby, 6 km to the southwest, are the ruins of ancient Corinth.

Corinth

ancient Greek city; one of wealthiest and most powerful. [Gk. Hist. and Myth.: Zimmerman, 69]
See: Wealth

Corinth

1. a port in S Greece, in the NE Peloponnese: the modern town is near the site of the ancient city, the largest and richest of the city-states after Athens. Pop.: 29 600 (1995 est.)
2. a region of ancient Greece, occupying most of the Isthmus of Corinth and part of the NE Peloponnese
3. Gulf of. Also called: Gulf of Lepanto. an inlet of the Ionian Sea between the Peloponnese and central Greece
4. Isthmus of. a narrow strip of land between the Gulf of Corinth and the Saronic Gulf: crossed by the Corinth Canal making navigation possible between the gulfs
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