Coriolis effect


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Related to Coriolis effect: Coriolis force

Coriolis effect

(kôr'ē-ō`lĭs) [for G.-G. de Coriolis, a French mathematician], tendency for any moving body on or above the earth's surface, e.g., an ocean current or an artillery round, to drift sideways from its course because of the earth's rotation. In the Northern Hemisphere the deflection is to the right of the motion; in the Southern Hemisphere it is to the left. The Coriolis deflection of a body moving toward the north or south results from the fact that the earth's surface is rotating eastward at greater speed near the equator than near the poles, since a point on the equator traces out a larger circle per day than a point on another latitude nearer either pole. A body traveling toward the equator with the slower rotational speed of higher latitudes tends to fall behind or veer to the west relative to the more rapidly rotating earth below it at lower latitudes. Similarly, a body traveling toward either pole veers eastward because it retains the greater eastward rotational speed of the lower latitudes as it passes over the more slowly rotating earth closer to the pole. It is extremely important to account for the Coriolis effect when considering projectile trajectories, terrestrial wind systems, and ocean currents.

Coriolis effect

[kȯr·ē′ō·ləs i′fekt]
(mechanics)
Also known as Coriolis deflection.
The deflection relative to the earth's surface of any object moving above the earth, caused by the Coriolis force; an object moving horizontally is deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, to the left in the Southern.
The effect of the Coriolis force in any rotating system.
(physiology)
The physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, and so on) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station.

Coriolis effect

Coriolis effectclick for a larger image
Coriolis effect
Displacement of the vertical caused by random acceleration.
i. The apparent effect of a number of forces that act upon a body or particle set in motion on the earth's surface, tending to divert the moving object to the right of its path in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. A correction must be made when navigation relative to the earth is considered. See Coriolis force.
ii. The change in rotor blade velocity to compensate for a change in the distance between the center of mass of the rotor blade and the axis of rotation of the blade as the blades flap in flight. Rotor blades accelerate when their center of gravity moves closer to the center of rotation and decelerate when it moves farther away. Rotor blades accelerate and decelerate accompanied with the rotor blades flapping.
iii. The displacement of the apparent horizon, as defined by the bubble in a sextant by acceleration, caused by an aircraft flying in a nonlinear path in space.
iv. The tendency of a mass to increase or decrease its angular velocity when its radius of rotation is changed. More correctly called the conservation of angular momentum.
References in periodicals archive ?
Flat rotating objects such as a record player or merry-go-round can be used to illustrate the Coriolis effect.
The magnitude of this Coriolis effect is 2m x V x w x sin l.
Only at the Equator, where sin 1 = 0, is there no Coriolis effect.
Consequently lateral water movements induced by tide generating forces respond readily to the Coriolis effect to an extent that is directly proportional to the mass and the speed of the object in question.
To compensate for this deflective force, a rising slope to the right of 1:95 112 would be caused by the Coriolis effect in the Northern Hemisphere.
Under these conditions the lateral water surface gradient due to the Coriolis effect can be calculated from equation (18) as:
When acceleration to the right has ceased, the velocity to the right has to be counteracted by an opposite acceleration, either by the water moving in the opposite direction, or by the slope caused by the Coriolis effect.
However it seems likely that the Coriolis effect contributes to much stronger tides along the Gulf of Maine coastline of Nova Scotia than near Cape Cod and the Great South Channel (between Nantucket Shoals and Georges Bank).
The swing of the Coriolis effect with incoming tides might therefore be expected to exert a relatively stronger erosive power on southern or southeastern shores of channels and estuaries in the Bay of Fundy than ebb tides do on the opposite sides.
The Coriolis effect increases in a polewards direction.
6 extends Microcosm's device, system, and packaging design capabilities with enhancements to model electrostatic spring softening effects in RF resonators and coriolis effects in gyros used in navigation and platform stabilization.