Coronary Circulation

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Coronary Circulation

 

the blood supply to the cardiac muscle, carried by the intercommunicating arteries and veins that run throughout the myocardium.

In man, arterial blood is supplied mainly by the right and left coronary arteries, which begin at the base of the aorta. There are three types of blood supply—right coronary, left coronary, and general—which in some measure determine the nature of the pathology of the coronary circulation in the event of disease of the heart vessels. The coronary veins are both larger and greater in number than the arteries. The veins empty into the right atrium. The principal arterial and venous trunks are connected by a well-developed network of anastomoses, which facilitates collateral (shunt) circulation in cases of impairment of blood supply to the heart.

The great intensity of the blood supply to the myocardium is provided by a dense network of capillaries (approximately twice the number per unit volume than in the skeletal muscles). The level of the coronary circulation in a healthy body corresponds exactly to the force and frequency of the heartbeat. It is regulated both by physical factors (for example, blood pressure in the aorta) and by neural and humoral mechanisms. Coronary circulation is influenced by physical and mental condition and by the degree and character of stress or load. It is sharply impaired by nicotine and certain factors that lead to atherosclerosis, hyper-tension, and cardiac ischemia, such as overstrain of the nervous system, negative emotions, improper nutrition, and the absence of constant physical excercise. Coronary insufficiency and disturbances of coronary circulation are among the most frequent causes of death in economically developed countries, and there-fore their prevention and treatment (mainly of infarction) are the most pressing problems of modern medicine.

I. M. D’IAKONOVA and S. V. SAMOILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Deviations from normal coronary anatomy are termed as variants or coronary artery anomalies (CAA).
Among 23 pairs of twins studied, there was strong concordance of clinical presentation, coronary anatomy, coronary narrowing, and even coronary anomalies (Table) (1--4).
Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography is emerging as a reliable non-invasive method for the assessment of coronary artery disease, coronary anatomy and cardiac function.
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As with adults, the unalterable risk factors are age (older people run a higher risk), gender (male) and genetics (race, coronary anatomy and family history of disease).
Toshiba's Aquilion ONE and CT Myocardial Analysis can be used to visualize coronary anatomy and pathology and to assess the presence of hypo- or hyper-dense areas of myocardial tissue.
As we know, plaque morphology, coronary anatomy and the presence or absence of intimal dissection are very important features in the pathophysiology of STEMI.
The Guidelines Committee endorsed the use of prasugrel in UA/NSTEMI patients (especially those with diabetes) who are clopidogrel naE[macron]ve in whom coronary anatomy is known and who are proceeding to PCI(1).
According to results from the SPARC (Study of Myocardial Perfusion and Coronary Anatomy Imaging Roles in CAD) trial, SPECT, PET, and 64-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA) all achieve significant risk stratification and add incremental value over pre-imaging data for the prediction of clinical outcomes.
sites who participated in the Study of Myocardial Perfusion and Coronary Anatomy Imaging Roles in CAD (SPARC) registry.
When patients are found to have disease by CCTA, that information can be very helpful in planning PCI, as it gives a "preview" of the coronary anatomy before a catheter is placed in the body.