Coronary Circulation

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Related to Coronary arteries: coronary artery disease, Coronary circulation

Coronary Circulation

 

the blood supply to the cardiac muscle, carried by the intercommunicating arteries and veins that run throughout the myocardium.

In man, arterial blood is supplied mainly by the right and left coronary arteries, which begin at the base of the aorta. There are three types of blood supply—right coronary, left coronary, and general—which in some measure determine the nature of the pathology of the coronary circulation in the event of disease of the heart vessels. The coronary veins are both larger and greater in number than the arteries. The veins empty into the right atrium. The principal arterial and venous trunks are connected by a well-developed network of anastomoses, which facilitates collateral (shunt) circulation in cases of impairment of blood supply to the heart.

The great intensity of the blood supply to the myocardium is provided by a dense network of capillaries (approximately twice the number per unit volume than in the skeletal muscles). The level of the coronary circulation in a healthy body corresponds exactly to the force and frequency of the heartbeat. It is regulated both by physical factors (for example, blood pressure in the aorta) and by neural and humoral mechanisms. Coronary circulation is influenced by physical and mental condition and by the degree and character of stress or load. It is sharply impaired by nicotine and certain factors that lead to atherosclerosis, hyper-tension, and cardiac ischemia, such as overstrain of the nervous system, negative emotions, improper nutrition, and the absence of constant physical excercise. Coronary insufficiency and disturbances of coronary circulation are among the most frequent causes of death in economically developed countries, and there-fore their prevention and treatment (mainly of infarction) are the most pressing problems of modern medicine.

I. M. D’IAKONOVA and S. V. SAMOILOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
In conclusion, origination of the coronary arteries from the contralateral aortic sinus is a rare anomaly that may lead to a serious outcome including sudden death, syncope, and heart failure.
That experimental process mimics what happens to humans when the coronary arteries become choked with fatty plaque, Epstein says.
Estrogens are known to inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation and to accelerate endothelial regeneration, suggesting that estrogen coated stents may reduce restenosis in human coronary arteries.
A regimen of cholesterol-lowering drugs shinks fatty plaques narrowing the coronary arteries in women -- as well as men -- who suffer from a genetic defect that puts them at high risk of heart attacks, a new study shows.
Still, said Sze, the challenges are greater when placing stents in leg arteries, which are much longer and wider than coronary arteries.
In addition, the findings suggest that new drugs, as well as some already under investigation for other diseases, might dilate narrowed coronary arteries without significantly altering other vessels.
A group of researchers at Mayo Clinic, led by Virginia Miller, PhD showed that nanobacteria are present in calcified atherosclerotic coronary arteries and heart valves.
The Boston researchers gave each patient an injection of acetylcholine, a substance produced by nerve cells that causes healthy coronary arteries to dilate.
IVUS is a catheter-based technology that provides clinicians with a high-resolution view of the coronary arteries from the inside.
The scientists randomly assigned 50 participants with coronary artery disease to two groups and tested them initially and at the end of one year to determine the condition of their coronary arteries and blood lipid levels.
The company also introduced the customized, fast and reliable Philips Brilliance CT Private Practice CV configuration, targeted toward cardiologists, and the Philips Allura 3D-Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) tool, which obtains three-dimensional images of the coronary arteries.

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