philanthropy

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philanthropy,

the spirit of active goodwill toward others as demonstrated in efforts to promote their welfare. The term is often used interchangeably with charity. Every year vast sums of money are collected for invaluable philanthropic purposes, and an increasing number of people participate in the work of collecting money through highly organized campaigns, the purpose of which is fund-raisingfund-raising,
large-scale soliciting of voluntary contributions, especially in the United States. Fund-raising is widely undertaken by charitable organizations, educational institutions, and political groups to acquire sufficient funds to support their activities.
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. In many countries philanthropy has been incorporated in government policy in the form of tax exemptions for contributions to charitable agencies. It has become so accepted that few now escape the demands of giving, and many important institutions are partly or wholly dependent on it.

In early times, charity was usually prompted by religious faith and helped to assure a reward in an afterlife, a notion found in Egypt many centuries before the Christian era. Throughout history, active participation in philanthropy has been a particular characteristic of Western societies. A traditional philanthropic ideal of Christianity is that of the tithe, which holds that one tenth of a person's income should go to charity. Charity is also important in Islam, Buddhism, and other religions. Foundationsfoundation,
institution through which private wealth is contributed and distributed for public purpose. Foundations have existed since Greek and Roman times, when they honored deities.
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—institutions that distribute private wealth for public purposes—also have an ancient history.

At the end of the 19th cent. it was recognized that corporations could play a part in financing voluntary agencies when the Young Men's Christian Association set a new pattern for raising money: intensive drives over a short period of time, the use of sophisticated techniques to raise money, and an emphasis on corporation donations. Other voluntary agencies soon copied this pattern, and it is still the typical practice for large-scale fundraising. During World War I, coordination of effort became a trend in philanthropic activity. In the United States, this coordination took the form of Community Chestscommunity chest,
cooperative organization of citizens and social welfare agencies in a city. Also known as a united fund, it has two purposes: to raise funds through an annual campaign for its member agencies and to budget the funds raised.
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, which combined a number of charities under one appeal, now known as the United Way.

Today the organization and coordination of philanthropy has eliminated much of the spontaneity of giving. They have also brought about a more rational assessment of ability to give as well as the introduction of scientific methods of ascertaining community and national needs and of raising money. The focus has also shifted from the relief of immediate need to long-term planning to prevent future need.

Philanthropy

Appleseed, Johnny
nickname of John Chapman (c. 1775–1847), who traveled through the Ohio Valley giving away apple seeds and caring for orchards. [Am. Hist.: Collier’s, IV, 569]
Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919)
steel magnate who believed the rich should administer wealth—for public benefit. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 83]
Guggenheim
19th- and 20th-century family name of American industrialists and philanthropists. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1159]
Mellon, Andrew (1855–1937)
financier and public official; left large sums for research and art. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1743]
Rhodes, Cecil (1853–1902) British
imperialist; left millions of pounds for public service; notably, the Rhodes scholarships. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 2316]
Rockefeller, John D(avison)
(1839–1937) American multimillionaire; endowed many institutions. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 431]
References in periodicals archive ?
We're very proud of the number and diversity of organizations that we support each year through our corporate giving program.
Such trends are analyzed in the national report, "Giving in Numbers: 2013 Edition," which offers senior executives a tool to analyze and grow their own companies' corporate giving programs.
The research, The Charities Trust Future for Corporate Giving Report, analysed community investment trends and aspirations to identify the likely route for growth.
Wells Fargo's corporate giving is guided by the principle of finding local solutions for local needs.
Blanket America's BUY 1, GIVE 1 donation model has already seen tremendous positive response from consumers, and we're happy to share the love through our corporate giving program.
The service offers current, detailed information on more than 2,700 company-sponsored foundations and nearly 1,400 direct corporate giving programs.
According to the Center for Corporate Citizenship at Boston College in Massachusetts, as of 12 September 2005, corporate giving to help with Katrina's aftermath had reached US$547 million, with Wal-Mart, Office Depot and General Electric being the largest donors.
Rick Beard, Bank of American Fork president and CEO, says the bank's board and employees believe in corporate giving.
The grant comes from the company's Corporate Giving Fund, which is allocated for larger-scale community projects close to Dow Corning sites in Europe.
Silberman previously held positions as director of corporate, foundation and government giving at Northridge Hospital Foundation, and as director of foundation and corporate giving for the Foundation for the Junior Blind in Los Angeles.
The "guide" in the title is instructive: Rubenstein tackles a series of organizational and philosophical issues about corporate giving in a methodical and easily digestible way, drawing many of the examples from corporations operating in Minnesota.
Beneficiaries of corporate giving include AIDS Rochester, the Gay Alliance of the Genesee Valley, Image Out (Rochester's lesbian and gay film festival), and the Rochester and Tampa, Fla.

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