Lewis and Clark expedition

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See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
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Lewis and Clark expedition,

1803–6, U.S. expedition that explored the territory of the Louisiana PurchaseLouisiana Purchase,
1803, American acquisition from France of the formerly Spanish region of Louisiana. Reasons for the Purchase

The revelation in 1801 of the secret agreement of 1800, whereby Spain retroceded Louisiana to France, aroused uneasiness in the United
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 and the country beyond as far as the Pacific Ocean.

Purpose

Thomas Jefferson had long considered the project of a western expedition, having encouraged John LedyardLedyard, John
, 1751–89, American adventurer, b. Groton, Conn. He studied at Dartmouth for year, but left college to ship as a sailor. In 1776 he joined Capt. James Cook's last expedition.
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 when he proposed such an expedition in the 1780s, and as president he contemplated the matter in earnest and discussed it with his private secretary, Capt. Meriwether LewisLewis, Meriwether,
1774–1809, American explorer, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark expedition, b. near Charlottesville, Va. He was a captain in the army and served in a number of campaigns against Native Americans before becoming (1801) secretary to his friend
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. When Congress approved the plan in 1803 and appropriated money for it, Jefferson named Lewis to head it, and Lewis selected William ClarkClark, William,
1770–1838, American explorer, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark expedition, b. Caroline co., Va.; brother of George Rogers Clark. He was an army officer (1792–96), serving in a number of engagements with Native Americans.
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 as his associate in command. The purpose was to search out a land route to the Pacific, to strengthen American claims to Oregon territory, and to gather information about the indigenous inhabitants and the country of the Far West. Before the long march was begun, the Louisiana Purchase was made, increasing the need for a survey of the West.

The Expedition

The men were gathered and in the winter of 1803–4 were trained in Illinois across the Mississippi from St. Louis, the starting point. In May, 1804, they set out up the Missouri, and the next winter was spent at the Mandan villages (near present Bismarck, N.Dak.). In 1805 the hardest part of the journey was made. After reaching the Three Forks of the Missouri River (and naming the three branches after Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin in loyalty to the administration), they followed the Jefferson as far as they could. Then their Shoshone guide, the remarkable woman SacajaweaSacajawea
, Sacagawea
, or Sakakawea
, c.1784–1884?, Native North American woman guide on the Lewis and Clark expedition and the only woman to accompany the party.
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, helped to obtain horses for them to continue across the high Rockies. They crossed the Continental Divide at Lemhi Pass and went over the Bitterroot Mts. through Lolo Pass. They had reached the land of westward-flowing rivers, and for part of their way they followed the Clearwater River down to the Snake River (long called the Lewis). The Snake took them to the Columbia River and they spent a miserable, rainy winter season in Fort Clatsop, a crude post they built on the Pacific coast.

In the spring they started back across the continent. In July, 1806, the party split for a time in order to explore as much territory as possible. Lewis went with a group down the Marias River, while Clark and most of the men descended the Yellowstone River; they were reunited on the Missouri at the mouth of the Yellowstone on Aug. 12, 1806. The party arrived in St. Louis on Sept. 23, 1806, and were greeted with much acclaim. The route of the expedition is commemorated by a series of sites along the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
, table).

The importance of the well-planned, well-executed expedition (only one person had been lost) was enormous. Although it was not the first transcontinental crossing in the north (Alexander Mackenzie had preceded them in a remarkable voyage), it opened vast new territories to the United States. Its influence on the history of the West is incalculable. Its results matched the efficiency and capability of its leaders.

Bibliography

Since the journey was under official auspices, many records were kept. The first report of it to be published appeared in a message of President Jefferson in 1806. In 1807 the journal of Patrick Gass appeared; it was several times reissued before The History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark was published (ed. by N. Biddle and P. Allen, 2 vol., 1814; repr. 1966). This appeared in later editions by E. Coues (4 vol., 1893; repr. 1965) and J. B. McMaster (1904). R. G. Thwaites edited a full issue of Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (8 vol., 1904–5; repr. 2001; abridged ed. by B. DeVoto, 1953, repr. 1963) and G. E. Moulton edited a definitive edition of the journals of Lewis, Clark, and members of the Corps of Discovery published as The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (13 vol., 1983–2002, abridged ed. 2003).

There have been many studies and monographs on the expedition. See study by J. Bakeless (1947, repr. 1962). See also Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (ed. by D. D. Jackson, 1962); R. H. Dillon, Meriwether Lewis: A Biography (1968); P. R. Cutright, Lewis and Clark, Pioneering Naturalists (1969); D. S. Lavender, The Way to the Western Sea (1988).

Lewis and Clark Expedition

proved feasibility of overland route to the Pacific. [Am. Hist.: Benét, 583]
References in periodicals archive ?
On September 7, 1804, the Corps of Discovery succeeded in extracting a single member of this new-to-them species from its den.
And though your latest adventure and/or exploration won't be commissioned by President Jefferson, as the Corps of Discovery was, perhaps yours will be commissioned by a boss, a spouse's boss or the desire to be closer to family.
Long considered one of the foremost experts on Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery, James Ronda presents the seven chapters of this little book as if they were a series of reflective essays based on years of scholarship and study.
The playwright is at once honoring and sending up the famed Corps of Discovery explorers sent west to explore Thomas Jefferson's newly purchased Louisiana Territory.
Toward the end of September, the Corps of Discovery, as the expedition was officially known, ran into the Teton tribe of the Sioux.
The Nez Perce graciously greeted Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery, and in the trek's bicentennial year, it is fitting that AMERICAN FORESTS, the U.
However, as the fervor of The Center's launch began to calm, the challenges of truly making a difference in the lives of association leaders across the world began to look like what I imagine the Rockies must have to Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery.
Two hundred years ago, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and the other members of the Corps of Discovery traveled 3,700 miles from the Mississippi River to Oregon and the Pacific.
The captains and/or other members of the Corps of Discovery passed the Florissant karst, visited pseudokarst Tavern Rock Cave, encountered caves in the Gasconade River drainage, noted a cave near Jefferson City at what is now Clark's Hill-Norton State Historic Site, and visited numerous springs.
Lewis and Clark's Corps of Discovery mission involved a team of explorer-scientists who were to observe and document what they found.
Until Lewis and Clark led their Corps of Discovery toward the far western horizon, no known white man had ever seen, let alone shot, this fleet and keen-eyed creature.
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