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an academic title in the USSR and in a number of foreign countries, including the German Democratic Republic, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. (A similar title—correspondent—is used in France.) In the USSR, corresponding members are elected for outstanding achievements in science or scholarship to the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the academies of sciences of the Union republics, the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, and the Academy of Arts of the USSR. Candidates are nominated by scientific institutions, public organizations, or individuals. The names of the candidates are published in the press prior to the elections. Corresponding members are elected by secret ballot within the appropriate division of an academy and are approved by the academy’s general assembly.