Cortes


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Cortes

(kôr`tĕz, Span. kōr`tās), representative assembly in Spain. The institution originated (12th–13th cent.) in various Spanish regions with the Christian reconquest; until the 19th cent. the local cortes of Leon, Castile, Aragón, Catalonia, Navarre, Valencia, and other states met separately. The three estates—clergy, nobility, and burghers—voted the taxes, recognized the kings upon their accession, and indirectly exercised some legislative influence. The cortes of Aragón and Catalonia were particularly powerful. After the consolidation of the royal power (15th cent.) and the unification of Spain, the cortes were seldom convoked except to pay homage, and their powers were curtailed. The first national Cortes of Spain met at Cádiz in 1810 in the Peninsular War, the Spanish war of liberation from Napoleonic rule. They voted (1812) a liberal constitution, later (1814) revoked by Ferdinand VII. Thereafter the status of the Cortes frequently changed in its struggle for power with the king. At the fall of the monarchy in 1931, a constituent Cortes promulgated a republican constitution, and the Cortes was the parliament of Spain until 1939. Under Francisco Franco's dictatorship a Cortes was preserved but stripped of effective legislative power; a revived, bicameral Cortes was established in 1977. Under the Portuguese monarchy various legislative bodies were known as cortes.

Cortes

 

(Spanish, from corte, “royal court”), assemblies with representation by estates in Spain and Portugal in the Middle Ages (the first such assemblies in Western Europe); in modem times, parliaments in Spain and Portugal (in Portugal, until 1911).

The name “cortes” is first encountered in Castile in 1137. The cortes developed from the royal curia and originally included only representatives of the nobility and clergy. Cities obtained the right of representation later: in León, in 1188; in Catalonia, in 1218; in Castile, in 1250; in Portugal, in 1254; in Aragon, in 1274; and in Navarre, in 1300. The cortes played an important role in the 13th and 14th centuries, promoting the influence of the cities and limiting the arbitrary power of the feudal lords. Their significance declined with the establishment of absolutism. Revived during the Spanish revolutions of the 19th century, they acquired a new significance as bourgeois parliaments.

References in periodicals archive ?
The requirement for CGC has resulted in the surge of Filipino jobseekers trooping to the consulate resulting in long queues and "re-shuffling of consular staff," according to Cortes.
El lema que escogio Cortes para su escudo de armas era Judicium Domini aprehendit eos et fortitudo ejus corroboravit brachium meum ("El juicio del Senor se apodero de ellos y su poder fortalecio mi brazo").
Cortes said he also spoke to the suspect's immediate family in order to provide them assistance, if needed.
Since Cortes had violated his orders, Governor Velasquez sent a punitive expedition to retrieve him, lead by Panfilo de Narvaez, who landed at Vera Cruz on 20 April 1520.
Hasta la fecha, el TEDH se ha referido a la jurisprudencia de la Corte IDH en un total de 24 asuntos, de los cuales 12 son de Gran Sala (TEDH, 1996; 1998; 2005a; 2005b; 2007; 2009a; 2009b; 2009d; 2009e; 2010; 2011a; 2011b) y otros 12 son de una de las Salas del TEDH (2000; 2006a; 2006b; 2008a; 2008b; 2009c; 2012a; 2012b; 2012c; 2012e; 2013b; 2013c).
Kapiszewski construye su argumento sobre dos puntos clave, que aluden a capturar una mayor complejidad en los patrones de relacion de las Cortes con las otras ramas de gobierno.
De acuerdo con nuestra Constitucion, el ejercicio del Poder Judicial de la federacion se deposita en la Corte, en un tribunal electoral, en tribunales colegiados y unitarios de circuito y en juzgados de distritos.
Para Renato Gonzalez Mello, doctor en historia del arte y director del Instituto de Investigaciones Esteticas de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, hay tres obras significativas sobre la figura de Cortes pintadas por Jose Clemente Orozco (1823-1949), del cual es especialista: El Cortes y la Malinche (1923-1926) de la antigua Escuela Nacional Preparatoria (cuya imagen aparecio en el numero 1995 de este semanario); el del mural del ala este denominado Cortes y la Cruz en la Epica Civilizacion Americana (1932-1934) que se ubica en la biblioteca del Dartmouth College, en Hanover, New Hampshire; y Cortes (1939) de la boveda del Hospicio Cabanas, en Guadalajara, Jalisco--que aparecio en el numero 1994.
Cortes regularly conducts trainings on issues such as anti-harassment/respect in the workplace and employee confidentiality obligations, and is a frequent speaker on human resources related issues with various organizations.
A Suprema Corte de Justica sob o governo do general Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
Hernan Cortes es uno de esos nombres de la Historia a los que se hace protagonista o responsable de grandes acontecimientos.