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see astronautastronaut,
crew member on a U.S. manned spaceflight mission; the Soviet term is cosmonaut. Candidates for manned spaceflight are carefully screened to meet the highest physical and mental standards, and they undergo rigorous training.
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(also astronaut), a person who tests and operates space hardware during a space flight; it is a profession that arose because of man’s penetration into space (1961).

The first cosmonaut trainees were selected from military pilots (USSR) and test pilots (USA), since the necessary combination of qualities (expert flying skill; the ability to make instant decisions and to withstand noise, vibration, acceleration, and their combinations; and experience in carrying out observations and recording their results) is most often found in those professions. Later, in both the USSR and the USA, engineers and scientists with the required specialized knowledge also became part of flight crews.

Cosmonaut training began in the Soviet Union in 1960 and in the USA in 1959 for Mercury program flights and in 1962 for Gemini and Apollo program flights. Soviet cosmonauts who had made space flights as pilots or crew members as of Jan. 1, 1976, were lu. A. Gagarin (1961), G. S. Titov (1961), A. G. Nikolaev (1962 and 1970), P. R. Popovich (1962 and 1974), V. F. Bykovskii (1963), V. V. Tereshkova (Nikolaeva-Tereshkova; 1963), V. M. Komarov (1964 and 1967), K. P. Feoktistov (1964), B. B. Egorov (1964), P. I. Beliaev (1965), A. A. Leonov (1965 and 1975), G. T. Beregovoi (1968), V. A. Shatalov (twice in 1969; 1971), A. S. Eliseev (twice in 1969; 1971), E. V. Khrunov (1969), B. V. Volynov (1969), G. S. Shonin (1969), V. N. Kubasov (1969 and 1975), A. V. Filipchenko (1969 and 1974), V. N. Volkov (1969 and 1971), V. V. Gorbatko (1969), V. I. Sevast’-ianov (1970 and 1975), N. N. Rukavishnikov (1971), G. T. Dobrovol’skii (1971), V. I. Patsaev (1971), V. G. Lazarev (1973), O. G. Makarov (1973), P. I. Klimuk (1973 and 1975), V. V. Lebedev (1973), lu. P. Artiukhin (1974), L. S. Demin (1974), G. V. Sarafanov (1974), A. A. Gubarev (1975), and G. M. Grechko (1975).

American astronauts were A. Shepard (1961 and 1971), V. Grissom (1961 and 1965), J. Glenn (1962), M. S. Carpenter (1962), W. Schirra (1962, 1965, and 1968), L. G. Cooper (1963, 1965), J. Young (1965, 1966, 1969 and 1972), J. McDivitt (1965 and 1969), E. White (1965 and 1968), C Conrad (1965, 1966, 1969, and 1973), F. Borman (1965 and 1968), J. Lovell (1965, 1966, 1968, and 1970), T. Stafford (1965, 1966, and 1969), N. Armstrong (1966 and 1969), D. Scott (1966, 1969, and 1971), E. Cernan (1966, 1969, and 1972), M. Collins (1966 and 1969), R. Gordon (1966 and 1969), E. Aldrin, Jr. (1966 and 1969), W. Cunningham (1968), D. Eisele (1968), W. Anders (1968), R. Schweikert (1969), A. Bean (1969 and 1973), J. Swigert (1970), F. Haise (1970), E. Mitchell (1971), S. Roosa (1971), A. Worden (1971), J. Irwin (1971), T. Mattingly (1972), C. Duke (1972), R. Evans (1972), H. Schmitt (1972), J. Kerwin (1973), P. Weitz (1973), O. Garriott (1973), J. Lousma (1973), G. Carr (1973), E. Gibson (1973), W. Pogue (1973), D. Slayton (1975), and V. Brand (1975).

G. A. NAZAROV [13–760–1; updated]


(aerospace engineering)
An astronaut in the former Soviet Union.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ahead of the launch of the Cosmonauts exhibition at the Science Museum, the Culture Secretary John Whittingdale met with Russian Deputy Prime Minister Olga Golodets to discuss cultural collaboration between the two countries.
The current crew of the ISS consists of three cosmonauts from Russia's Roscosmos space agency -- Commander Gennady Padalka, Mikhail Kornienko, Sergei Volkov and Oleg Kononenko, NASA astronauts Scott Kelly and Kjell Lindgren, Japanese researcher Kimiya Yui and Denmark's first man in space Andreas Mogensen.
Kazakh cosmonaut Aidyn Aimbetov is ready to replace British singer Sarah Brightman, who cancelled her travel to the International Space Station as a space tourist, a top official at the Kazakh National Aerospace Committee Kazcosmos said on Tuesday, reports RIA Novosti.
The creation of a national space station would ensure that Russia has a base to fly cosmonauts to until it has developed its more ambitious plans to send crews on orbiting missions around the moon and land them on its surface by 2030.
These organisms have the ability to survive in space, but the recent discovery made by the cosmonauts was completely unexpected.
This will be the second spacewalk for both cosmonauts.
A COSMONAUT and "hero of the Soviet Union" has joined two North Wales professors in launching space technology talks at a prestigious Moscow conference.
Melbourne, November 20 ( ANI ): An article in an online magazine has revealed the contents of a Soviet cosmonaut survival kit.
This time, the cosmonauts will replace a laser experiment on the Russian side of the orbiting outpost.
Once in space, Russian cosmonauts Sergei Ryazansky and Oleg Kotov will take the Olympic torch on a spacewalk.
THREE Russian cosmonauts were found dead in their space capsule in 1971 after it made what looked like a perfect landing in Kazakhstan.
Bulgaria's President Georgi Parvanov has welcomed a delegation of Bulgarian and Russian cosmonauts stressing the possibilities for bilateral space cooperation.