Diosgenin is a plant based drug wildly present in the Costaceae
family of plants.
1998) and Costaceae
(Larsen, 1998a), in contrast, only the median posterior stamen is fertile; in Costaceae
the other five stamens are transformed into the lower lip, in Zingiberaceae only two to four of them form the lower lip, while the remaining ones may form separate petaloid organs (Endress, 1995; Specht et al.
Siluk fulung Costaceae
Costus speciosus (Koenig) R.
Druse-like silica bodies characterize several other commelinid monocots, such as Arecaceae, Cannaceae, Costaceae
, Marantaceae, Musaceae, and Strelitziaceae, but in these families they occur in the bundle sheath cells adjacent to sclerenchyma, rather than in the epidermis, as in Dasypogonaceae.
Detailed studies of two families, Costaceae and Zingiberaceae, indicate that specialized relationships with animal pollinators have led to increased rates of diversification in bird-pollinated and bee-pollinated lineages (Kay et al.
Perianth dimorphism increases evolutionarily within the order (Bartlett & Specht, 2010), with the highest amount of dimorphism recognized in the Costaceae which has sepals that are significantly smaller, more coriaceous, and differently colored than the petals of the same species.
Families in which vessels with long scalariform perforation plates occur in roots whereas stems and leaves have only tracheids include Araceae (Keating, 2003), Costaceae
, Hanguanaceae, Heliconiaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Melanthiaceae, Petermanniaceae, Ruscaceae, Trilliaceae, Zingiberaceae, and a number of genera of hyacinthoid Liliaceae (Wagner, 1977).
Cuscutaceae 19 Costus speciosus Costaceae
families: Strelitziaceae + Lowiaceae, Costaceae
+ Zingiberaceae and
The Zingiberales are a classic example of the semophyletic sequence in stamen reduction from an original dicyclic androecium running in a continuous sequence (the reductive process is represented with symbols used for floral formulas; A refers to the androecium, the numbers refer to the number of stamens in a whorl, and the raised circle refers to staminodes): Musaceae [A3+3 or A3+2(1[degrees]) / Heliconiaceae [A2(1[degrees])+3] - Lowiaceae / Strelitziaceae (A3+2) - Zingiberaceae [A2[degrees]+ 1(2[degrees])] / Marantacene [A1[degrees]/2[degrees]/0+1(2[degrees])] - Costaceae
[A3[degrees]+1(2[degrees])] - Cannaceae [A2[degrees]+(2[degrees])] (see, e.
For example, in Costaceae
the exine is composed of layers of irregular-shaped rodlets (Stone et al.
Family Nucellus Anarthriaceae Tenuinucellate Arecaceae Crassinucellate Bromeliaceae Crassinucellate Cannaceae Crassinucellate Cartonemataceae Crassinucellate Centrolepidaceae Tenuinucellate Commelinaceae Crassinucellate (tenuinucellate in Cyanotis) Costaceae
Crassinucellate Cyperaceae Crassinucellate Dasypogonaceae Crassinucellate Ecdeiocoleaeeae Tenuinucellate Eriocaulaceae Tenuinucellate Flagellariaceae Crassinucellate Haemodoraceae Crassinucellate Hanguanaceae Unknown Heliconiaceae Crassinucellate Hydatellaceae Unknown Joinvilleaceae Unknown, but nucellar cap present (Fig.