The very strong Coster-Kronig transition 1s2s [right arrow] 1s2p3l, which depopulates the 2s spectator state very fast, further reduces any possible 2s spectator contributions to the spectrum [13,67].
This is not surprising in view of the fast depopulation of the 3s vacancies by Coster-Kronig transitions.
1) To create additional vacancies so that the total number of ionizations is the sum of the direct ionizations produced by the incident electrons and those created by the non-radiative Coster-Kronig transition.
12] are the Coster-Kronig transition probabilities.
Broadening may occur with low energy levels if non-radiative transitions are possible such as Coster-Kronig transitions.
The additional outer vacancies may result from Coster-Kronig transitions or shake-off mechanisms.
The transition rate of non-radiative Coster-Kronig transitions [f.