Costumbrismo

(redirected from Costumbrista)

Costumbrismo

 

a movement in the literature and fine arts of 19th-century Spain and Latin America. Arising out of the interest of romantics in folk life, costumbrismo was a turn toward a realistic portrayal of the world, expressing an upsurge of national consciousness and a desire to convey features of the people’s life, frequently with an idealization of patriarchal morals and customs.

In literature, costumbrismo developed primarily in the genre of the essay but was also given expression in the novel, drama, and poetry. The precursor of Spanish costumbrismo was S. de Mifiano (1799–1845), the author of the sharply critical essays Letters From a Poor Idler (1820). The establishment of costumbrismo in Spain is associated with the names of R. de Mesonero Romanes (1803–82), M. J. de Larra (1809–37), S. Estebanez Calderon (1799–1867), J. Somoza (1781–1852), S. Lopez Pelegrin (1801–6), and M. Lafuente (1806–66). In 1843, costumbristas published a collective work, Spaniards Depicted by Themselves, which brought about the appearance of many similar publications. The influence of costumbrismo was felt in the work of the regionalist writers A. de Trueba (1819–89) and J. M. de Pereda (1833–1906).

Costumbrismo arose in Latin America in the 1840’s. Important writers were J. J. Vallejo (1811–58) in Chile, J. de Dios Restrepo (1827–97) and T. Carrasquilla (1858–1940) in Colombia, F. Pardo (1806–68) and the poet R. Palma (1833–1919) in Peru, and J. B. Morales (1788–1856), M. Payno (1810–94), and the poet G. Prieto (1818–97) in Mexico.

Costumbrismo played an important role in the graphic arts and painting of Latin American countries. It was often linked to the scientific study of a country and was based on the documentarily accurate depiction of nature and the simple, attentive, and precise reproduction of the characteristics and colorful features of folk life and culture; at the same time the ethnographic motif in the works of the costumbristas frequently turned into lovingly recreated, at times idyllic, genre scenes. Costumbrismo realized the aesthetic value of nature and the events of day-to-day life and introduced simple people into the subject matter of Latin American art.

A significant school of costumbristas took shape in Cuba (V. P. Landaluce, 1825–89; F. Mialhe, 1800–68). Costumbrismo also developed in Colombia (R. Torres Mendez, 1809–85), Argentina (C. Morel, 1813–94), Uruguay (J. M. Besnes y Irigoyen, 1788–1865), Chile (M. A. Caro, 1835–1903), and Mexico (J. A. Arrieta, 1802–79).

REFERENCES

Polevoi, V. M. Iskusstvo stran Latinskoi Ameriki. Moscow, 1967.
Spell, J. R. “The Costumbrista Movement in Mexico.” Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 1935, vol. 50.
Costumbristas españoles, vols. 1–2. Edited by E. Correa Calderón. Madrid, 1950–51.
Duffey, F. M. The Early “Cuadro de Costumbres” in Colombia. Chapel Hill, N.C, 1956.
Rojas, M., and M. Carrizzo. Los costumbristas chilenos. [Santiago de Chile, 1957.]
References in periodicals archive ?
Contract awarded for Administration - Pr - Chora Cueca Alternative Music Group - Fiesta Costumbrista 2015
La "bajada" de la poesia a esferas populares tradicionalmente desconocidas por la hegemonia de los letrados corresponde con el ascenso de un pueblo cuya produccion cultural habia encontrado tierra fertil para que esta trascendiera lo meramente costumbrista.
Yet Lifshey undertakes a reading of Ninay "against the grain," whereby he shows that the novel moves beyond a simple costumbrista text and in particular episodes weaves an implicit critique of Spanish domination.
In order to establish a clear sense of national identity and declare psychological independence from Europe, Latin Americans would create styles of their own which can readily be seen in costumbrista elements of nineteenth century Latin American romantic literature.
The sainete comes forth in this film through the use of archetypical characters such as the drunkard, the meddling mother-in-law, the spinster in desperate search for a husband; the use of popular language; the costumbrista portrayal of urban Madrid; and the satirical humor directed towards certain social types.
Later, indianos appeared frequently in the Spanish zarzuela and costumbrista genres, and in the nineteenth century they were frequent protagonists in realist novels.
His literature has a costumbrista quality on a foundation of the universality of the human spirit.
Now, unlike so many costumbrista novels, Yawar Fiesta is not a superficial apology for some local fiesta.
Contract awarded for Administration - Pr - Tropical Music Various - Fiesta Costumbrista 2015
This costumbrista tendency to identify, classify, and characterize urban tipos is an active method by which the novelist creates his own textual urban space by drawing on that which he sees in the public sphere every day.
One such model for Mercado was Pancho Fierro, a self-taught costumbrista born in Lima in 1803.
Readers of fiction in Spanish will recognize this as the costumbrista esthetic, which the French call regionalist fiction.