Costumbrismo

(redirected from Costumbrista)

Costumbrismo

 

a movement in the literature and fine arts of 19th-century Spain and Latin America. Arising out of the interest of romantics in folk life, costumbrismo was a turn toward a realistic portrayal of the world, expressing an upsurge of national consciousness and a desire to convey features of the people’s life, frequently with an idealization of patriarchal morals and customs.

In literature, costumbrismo developed primarily in the genre of the essay but was also given expression in the novel, drama, and poetry. The precursor of Spanish costumbrismo was S. de Mifiano (1799–1845), the author of the sharply critical essays Letters From a Poor Idler (1820). The establishment of costumbrismo in Spain is associated with the names of R. de Mesonero Romanes (1803–82), M. J. de Larra (1809–37), S. Estebanez Calderon (1799–1867), J. Somoza (1781–1852), S. Lopez Pelegrin (1801–6), and M. Lafuente (1806–66). In 1843, costumbristas published a collective work, Spaniards Depicted by Themselves, which brought about the appearance of many similar publications. The influence of costumbrismo was felt in the work of the regionalist writers A. de Trueba (1819–89) and J. M. de Pereda (1833–1906).

Costumbrismo arose in Latin America in the 1840’s. Important writers were J. J. Vallejo (1811–58) in Chile, J. de Dios Restrepo (1827–97) and T. Carrasquilla (1858–1940) in Colombia, F. Pardo (1806–68) and the poet R. Palma (1833–1919) in Peru, and J. B. Morales (1788–1856), M. Payno (1810–94), and the poet G. Prieto (1818–97) in Mexico.

Costumbrismo played an important role in the graphic arts and painting of Latin American countries. It was often linked to the scientific study of a country and was based on the documentarily accurate depiction of nature and the simple, attentive, and precise reproduction of the characteristics and colorful features of folk life and culture; at the same time the ethnographic motif in the works of the costumbristas frequently turned into lovingly recreated, at times idyllic, genre scenes. Costumbrismo realized the aesthetic value of nature and the events of day-to-day life and introduced simple people into the subject matter of Latin American art.

A significant school of costumbristas took shape in Cuba (V. P. Landaluce, 1825–89; F. Mialhe, 1800–68). Costumbrismo also developed in Colombia (R. Torres Mendez, 1809–85), Argentina (C. Morel, 1813–94), Uruguay (J. M. Besnes y Irigoyen, 1788–1865), Chile (M. A. Caro, 1835–1903), and Mexico (J. A. Arrieta, 1802–79).

REFERENCES

Polevoi, V. M. Iskusstvo stran Latinskoi Ameriki. Moscow, 1967.
Spell, J. R. “The Costumbrista Movement in Mexico.” Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 1935, vol. 50.
Costumbristas españoles, vols. 1–2. Edited by E. Correa Calderón. Madrid, 1950–51.
Duffey, F. M. The Early “Cuadro de Costumbres” in Colombia. Chapel Hill, N.C, 1956.
Rojas, M., and M. Carrizzo. Los costumbristas chilenos. [Santiago de Chile, 1957.]
References in periodicals archive ?
Uno de los lienzos recientemente sumado al acervo mexicano representa una escena costumbrista que pertenecio a importantes colecciones europeas entre las que destaca la del doctor vienes Hans Finsterer: Diciembre: Un pueblo en invierno con personajes que deguellan a un cerdo, otros en la hoguera del cuarto de humo, a lo lejos montanas cubiertas de nieve.
Vocalan, who was mentored by National Artist for Visual Arts Carlos 'Botong' Francsico, was known for impressionistic works that were at times costumbrista and at times mystical in nature.
A continuacion abordamos la recontextualizacion que realizan los habitantes de la isla de Quehui, archipielago de Chiloe, de las practicas expresivas que constituyen las fiestas religiosas en esta provincia--procesion, misa, interpretacion musical de Gozos de Santo (2) y marchas de "pasacalles" (3) ahora en el marco de una actividad costumbrista contemporanea: "La Fiesta del Mar".
9,90 [euro] Un nuevo libro de la senorita Puri, ironico y costumbrista.
en ese aciago ano de 1816, aparece en el horizonte cultural novohispano la primera novela costumbrista de la republica de las letras latinoamericanas.
Robledo's admiring evocation of Mexican scenery and society offers a unique, transatlantic perspective that does not adhere to traditional definitions of the realist or costumbrista national novel, which may account for the relative oblivion into which the novel fell.
Es un libro genial, de multiples lecturas, pues su validez interesa en lo estetico, sociologico y costumbrista.
The detail and rigor with which Ocasio maps the discursive history of nineteenth-century Costumbrista writing hinges on a paradox, one that he uses as an exegetical conceit.
Su variedad tematica, donde la comida aparece en forma de nota sobre alimentacion, costumbres y relaciones sociales en torno a la mesa, hacen del genero literario costumbrista el punto de partida gracias al cual la prensa da cabida al articulo de costumbres.
For Ocasio, such costumbrista practices are a way into the longstanding discussion of the "hybridity" of Cuban nationalism, where mixture is, uneasily, at once embodied and abstract, utopian and dystopian, critical and reactionary, invoking, as the concept does, the fraught articulation of race, gender, sexuality, and culture.
Osorio se adentra en la discusion preliminar del desarrollo del concepto de cultura afro-cubana en la introduccion, "Nineteenth-Century Costumbrista Writers on the Slave Trade and on Black Traditions in Cuba".
Afirma Perez Salas (2005: 84) que, aunque la prensa costumbrista espanola ya empleaba la litografia en las ilustraciones a inicios de la decada de 1840, en la coleccion mencionada el editor se decidio por el grabado en madera, siguiendo el modelo frances.