for biomass: results of a ten-year irrigation study.
no overbank-flooding and inadequate depth to groundwater), we applied minimal large-scale recruitment and replacement of cottonwoods
with later successional species of shrub according to current proportions in different river reaches (Howe and Knopf, 1991; Molles et al.
As older cottonwoods
die, holes are left in the canopy, and the ecosystem has no new trees to fill them.
The trees that succored Lewis and Clark's party were Plains cottonwoods
, one of three types of broad-leafed cottonwoods
that flourish along lower-elevation rivers and streams in the inland West.
Wolves had been reintroduced into the park and central Idaho in the winter of 1995 to 1996, and in 2001 both Ripple and Beschta noticed young willows and cottonwoods
were beginning to reach heights unseen for many decades.
in our area grow to amazing circumferences.
Most of the cottonwoods
are 40 to 80 years old, and natural regeneration is not replacing them.
The lesser-known cottonwoods
from around the United States include fremont cottonwood
, also called white cottonwood
(Populus fremontii); plains cottonwood
, also known as western cottonwood
, sweet cottonwood
and sargen poplar (Populus deltoides and Populus occidentalis); Rio Grande cottonwood
or valley cottonwood
(Populus wislizeni); and palmer cottonwood
Yosemite (California) - "In autumn, oaks, maples, dogwoods, alders, and cottonwoods
add splashes of color to the evergreen forests of the valley, usually in staggered presentations most concentrated from about mid-October into early November.
Locally, arundo is a bamboo-like grass that's highly invasive because it chokes up the river and crowds out the native species like willows and cottonwoods
,'' said Ian Swift, biologist at the Placerita Nature Center.
If you remember the movie, "The Sons of Katie Elder," the trees near the bridge where the gunfight took place were cottonwoods
Bigleaf maple can form pure stands along streams, and forms a component of mixed forests including Douglas-fir, Sitka spruce, western hemlock, redwood, black cottonwood
, willows, alders, ash, aspen, willows and a variety of western oaks and pines.