no overbank-flooding and inadequate depth to groundwater), we applied minimal large-scale recruitment and replacement of cottonwoods
with later successional species of shrub according to current proportions in different river reaches (Howe and Knopf, 1991; Molles et al.
We investigated the foraging of Black Bears on Black Cottonwoods
As older cottonwoods
die, holes are left in the canopy, and the ecosystem has no new trees to fill them.
have a special resonance for most Westerners, perhaps because the trees, called alamo in Spanish and commemorated in hundreds of western place names, mark the presence of water and the surprising diversity of life it nourishes in these thirsty landscapes.
So, enjoy cottonwoods
where midwesterners do--along waterways and in low, wet places.
Wolves had been reintroduced into the park and central Idaho in the winter of 1995 to 1996, and in 2001 both Ripple and Beschta noticed young willows and cottonwoods
were beginning to reach heights unseen for many decades.
in our area grow to amazing circumferences.
Most of the cottonwoods
are 40 to 80 years old, and natural regeneration is not replacing them.
resistance, susceptibility, and/or no differences), we first quantified herbivory on cottonwoods
(naturally occurring backcross hybrids of Populus angustifolia X P.
The mammals' chomping helps cottonwoods
regenerate and grow in mixed-age stands that promote biodiversity.
The lesser-known cottonwoods
from around the United States include fremont cottonwood
, also called white cottonwood
(Populus fremontii); plains cottonwood
, also known as western cottonwood
, sweet cottonwood
and sargen poplar (Populus deltoides and Populus occidentalis); Rio Grande cottonwood
or valley cottonwood
(Populus wislizeni); and palmer cottonwood
Olson admits insect and disease controls are not fully understood, but since cottonwoods
grow for six years from planting to harvest, there is still time to work on solutions.