Council of Trent

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Trent, Council of,

1545–47, 1551–52, 1562–63, 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked to meet the crisis of the Protestant ReformationReformation,
religious revolution that took place in Western Europe in the 16th cent. It arose from objections to doctrines and practices in the medieval church (see Roman Catholic Church) and ultimately led to the freedom of dissent (see Protestantism).
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. Earlier efforts at reforming the church had already produced the Fifth Lateran CouncilLateran Council, Fifth,
1512–17, 18th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope Julius II and continued by his successor Leo X. Julius called the council to counter an attempt begun (1510) by Louis XII of France to revive the conciliar theory (i.e.
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 (1512–17), but it had proved ineffectual. The rise of Lutheranism brought forth a church-wide reaction that was strongly anti-Lutheran. It hoped for a new council, and when Paul III was elected pope in 1534 such a council seemed assured (see Counter ReformationCounter Reformation,
16th-century reformation that arose largely in answer to the Protestant Reformation; sometimes called the Catholic Reformation. Although the Roman Catholic reformers shared the Protestants' revulsion at the corrupt conditions in the church, there was present
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). The obstacles, however, took 10 years to overcome, for now that a known reformer was pope, those opposing reform were not eager for a meeting.

The Meetings of the Council

The Protestants at first stipulated that it be held in Germany, while the pope insisted on an Italian venue. Mantua was chosen, but its duke refused; then Venice prevented a meeting at Vicenza. Finally Trent, an imperial city, almost in Italy, was selected as a compromise between the papal party and that of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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. There was an abortive start in 1542.

In 1544 the pope convened the council definitively. There were no Protestant delegates. The work of the council embraced dogmatic definition and correction of abuses, and it was so planned that discussion of doctrine and of reforms of practices could be carried on at the same time. The 10 years of delay bore good fruit, for the reformers arrived at the council intensively prepared in every question likely to be studied. The chief functions of the council were occasional solemn one-day sessions (25 in all, of which 10 dealt with formalities only) for the purpose of making the final decisions and declarations; the hard work of the council was done at informal, sometimes private, meetings. The council met at first in three great committees, later as a whole.

As with every ecumenical council since antiquity, the presence of the pope or his legates was required, and at Trent they drew up the agenda. The sessions of the council fell into three periods: 1–10 (1545–47), under Paul III; 11–16 (1551–52), under Julius III; and 17–25 (1562–63), under Pius IV. The two great interruptions were chiefly occasioned, first, by an impasse over the place of meeting after most of the bishops had left Trent for fear of the plague (1547), and, second, by the lack of interest of Paul IV (1555–59). Furthermore, the swiftly changing events of German politics often made delays seem wise. The numbers attending the council varied; in the first group of sessions there were less than 200, in the second group somewhat less, and in the third considerably more.

The Work of the Council

The work of the council was confirmed by Pius IV (in the papal bull Benedictus Deus, 1564), and its most important prescription, the issuance of an explicit account of the beliefs of the church, was fulfilled by the publication (1566) of the Catechism of the Council of Trent, or Roman Catechism (which, in fact, was not catechetical but descriptive in form). The dogmatic definitions and the reform decrees of the first group of sessions treated the Scriptures (canon, text, interpretation, and function), original sin, justification, the sacraments in general, baptism, and confirmation; and also the regulation of education, preaching, and alms collecting and the duties and obligations of bishops and beneficiaries. The canons on justification (6th session), the product of seven months of discussion, are among the chief work of the council.

The second period of the council was notable for the work of the Jesuits, especially Diego LainezLainez, Diego
, 1512–65, Spanish theologian, leader of the Counter Reformation; general of the Society of Jesus. He was one of the small band that formed the original Society of Jesus under St. Ignatius of Loyola.
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. The subjects treated were the Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, episcopal jurisdiction and office, clerical discipline, and benefices. The third period was dominated by St. Charles BorromeoCharles Borromeo, Saint
, 1538–84, Italian churchman, b. near Lago Maggiore. His uncle, Pius IV, summoned Charles, a student at Pavia, to Rome in 1560. In rapid order he was made cardinal-deacon, administrator of the Papal States and of the archdiocese of Milan, and papal
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; its definitions and regulations covered communion in both kinds, the Mass, the sacraments of orders and matrimony, the veneration and invocation of the saints, the cult of relics and images, the list of forbidden books, the priesthood in all its phases, ecclesiastical foundations, education, marriage, religious orders, feasts and fasts, and the service books of the church.

Influence

The doctrinal canons of the Council of Trent cover most of the controverted points in Roman Catholic dogma, and the definitions are so clear and lucid that the language of the council is often quoted in definitions. The reform measures of the council were tremendously far-reaching and their enforcement was probably the most thoroughgoing reform in the history of the church. The Counter Reformation afterward was to a great extent occupied with carrying out the principles and requirements laid down at Trent. The modern Roman Catholic Church can be understood only in the light of the work of the Council of Trent.

Bibliography

The most complete history is found in Ludwig Pastor's history of the popes; there is an English translation of the dogmatic canons and decrees and of the Roman Catechism, which includes much from the conciliar canons. See also H. Jedin, History of the Council of Trent (2 vol., tr. 1957–61); study by J. A. Froude (1896, repr. 1969); J. W. O'Malley, Trent: What Happened at the Council (2012).

Trent, Council of

 

an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church that convened from 1545 to 1547, in 1551, and in 1562 in Trent (now Trento) and from 1547 to 1549 in Bologna.

The council was convened in response to the success of the Reformation and at the insistence of many prelates and Emperor Charles V, who sought to end religious discord in the Holy Roman Empire and to reform the church in accordance with the demands of the conciliar movement (seeCONCILIAR MOVEMENT). The council was opened by Pope Paul III, and two parties emerged in the course of the proceedings. The party of the emperor insisted on reforming the church and eradicating clerical abuses; it was willing to make a few concessions on dogma to the Protestants. The papal party argued the need for church unity to combat the Reformation and to resolve questions on dogma within a framework of strict orthodoxy and conservatism. It rejected the slightest compromise on questions of doctrine.

The council concluded with the papal party victorious; its decree affirmed every traditional Catholic dogma. The council strengthened the organization of the church by confirming the pope’s supremacy over the council, increasing the power of bishops within their dioceses by broadening their right to supervise the clergy, and tightening monastic discipline. The council resulted in the intensified persecution of Protestants, the introduction of strict church censorship, and an expansion of the Inquisition. In an effort to control the spiritual life of society, the church obliged clerics and lay professors at Catholic universities to subscribe to the Profession of the Tridentine Faith, which was promulgated in 1564 and which affirmed the medieval dogmas of Catholicism.

The decrees of the council, formally binding on all Catholics, were officially adopted in Savoy, Portugal, Venice, and, in 1577, in Poland. In Spain they were adopted with provisos for the king’s retention of the right to appoint bishops and to interfere in the proceedings of the ecclesiastical courts. The decrees were not officially accepted in France, but the French clergy declared its submission in 1615. The decrees of the Council of Trent determined the policy and practice of the Catholic Church throughout much of the Counter-Reformation.

REFERENCES

Richard, P. Concite de Trente, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1930–31.
Jedin, H. Storia del concilio di Trento. Brescia, 1949.

A. KH. GORFUNKEL’

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