Counter-Reformation


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Counter-Reformation

 

Catholic reaction, an ecclesiastical and political movement in Europe in the mid-16th to 17th century that was led by the papacy and that was directed against the Reformation, with the aim of restoring the position lost by Catholicism in several countries during the first half of the 16th century. In essence the Counter-Reformation was one of the manifestations of feudal reaction (embracing not only the economic and political spheres but the ideological as well), the religious form of the “counterattack” of feudal forces attempting to strengthen the feudal system at a time when it had already begun to disintegrate.

The Inquisition, monastic orders, and the Roman curia were the chief instruments of the Counter-Reformation. The Inquisition, reorganized in 1542 into one of the congregations of the Roman curia and placed under the direct authority of the pope, unleashed in the Catholic countries a struggle against progressive ideas, freethinking, science, and all manifestations of Reformation thought (popular movements in the Reformation were persecuted with particular force). G. Bruno and G. Vanini were burned at the stake, and T. Campanella, Galileo, and many other progressive thinkers were subjected to persecution.

The Jesuit Order, created in 1534—40, took the most active part in the Counter-Reformation. With the help of the Jesuits and other forces of Catholic reaction the papacy succeeded at the Council of Trent (1545–63) in obtaining, in particular, recognition of the unconditional authority of the pope in matters of faith, introduction of a strict ecclesiastical censorship, publication of the Index of Forbidden Books, and other measures. The resolutions of the council became something of a program for the Counter-Reformation. The Trent Profession of Faith was adopted, which all ecclesiastics had to sign; any deviation from it was considered heresy and was persecuted.

During the Counter-Reformation there were created in Rome a number of educational establishments for the special training of Catholic clergymen, who were sent, above all, to the countries that were the arena for the most intense struggle between the forces of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation (such as Germany, the Netherlands). During the Counter-Reformation the Jesuits seized control of many universities, which in turn became instruments of Catholic reaction. Among the church figures who most zealously waged the Counter-Reformation were Popes Paul III, Paul IV (Cardinal Carafa prior to his election as pope), and Pius IV, as well as Cardinal Carlo Borromeo and the Jesuit P. Canisius.

The Counter-Reformation was not only the work of institutions of the Catholic Church. It was also energetically waged by the secular powers of several countries, including the Hapsburgs in Spain and the so-called Holy Roman Empire, Maximillian of Bavaria, and Sigismund III Vasa in Poland. Supporters of the Reformation were subjected to state persecution; special government edicts were issued that demanded the return of Protestants to the “bosom of the Catholic Church” under the threat of high fines, expulsion from the country, or even execution. One of the manifestations of the Counter-Reformation was the struggle for the return of lands lost by Catholics during the carrying out of the Reformation (publication of the Edict of Restitution of 1629 by Ferdinand II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire). Under the banner of the Counter-Reformation, Spain waged its struggle against the Dutch bourgeois revolution of the 16th century, and the Hapsburgs suppressed the liberation movement of their subjugated peoples and struggled for the realization of the idea of the creation of a “universal Christian empire” (as during the Thirty Years' War of 1618–48).

Having brought together the forces of feudal reaction, the Counter-Reformation to a certain extent strengthened the position of the papacy and the Catholic Church (having restored Catholicism and suppressed Reformation movements in several countries) and temporarily retarded the onset of the forces of the new, bourgeois society.

REFERENCES

Mikhnevich, D. E. Ocherki po istorii katolicheskoi reaktsii (lezuity). Moscow, 1953.
Lozinskii, S. G. Istoriia papstva. Moscow, 1961.
Brandi, K. Deutsche Reformation und Gegenreformation. Vol. 2:
”Gegenreformation und Religionskriege.” Leipzig, 1930.
References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, the strength of the collection was in moral theology of the Counter-Reformation with strong holdings for the Council of Trent, including the 1566 Aldine edition of the Catechismus Romanus.
As a further complement to Luebke's book, chapter thirteen gives the reader extracts from such counter-reformation figures as Savonarola, Viterbo, Contarini, Loyola, and a number of Council of Trent decrees.
His subsequent death by crucifixion was in keeping with the idea of the time, when the counter-Reformation was encouraging participation of the individual in the passion of Christ and his saints.
qualifies his use of "invented" and is right to draw attention to the long-neglected contributions of the church at Trent, this claim for the contribution made by the Marian church seems a stretch in light of the many other phenomena that shaped the Counter-Reformation.
One needs to jump across the barriers created by the developed Reformation and Counter-Reformation and make connections which may be unexpected.
The Counter-Reformation Church sought to wrest control of the night from disorderly groups of unmarried young men and tavern-goers, or from even more nefarious forces.
The articles are grouped as an introduction and five categories: (1) General Discussion (3 articles); (2) Scholasticism and Middle Ages (2 articles); (3) Counter-Reformation and Post-Reformation Scholasticism (2 articles); (4) Samples of Reformed Scholasticism (4 articles); (5) Scholasticism and Present-Day Theology (2 articles).
The preceding century had been witness to a traumatic event--the Reformation--the effects of which Clement sought to counteract with what later became known as the Counter-Reformation.
Rather than linking these changes to changing perceptions of the poor and begging, whereby poverty and begging became criminalized and something to be punished, or to the impact of the Counter-reformation, Cavallo attributes them to the evolution of Turin's social matrix.
The author follows the lead of James Farr and Joan Scott, agreeing with them that refining sexual differences reinforced social order and hierarchy in Counter-Reformation Europe.
The book is organized around the remarkable women who guided the convent through distinct phases: (1) the founding in 1535 in the open and decentralized religious climate of pre-Tridentine experimentation, (2) the struggles with the Inquisition and the imposition of episcopal control in the 1550s, (3) the apogee of Counter-Reformation rigor during Carlo Borromeo's "revolution" as archbishop of Milan from 1565-84, (4) the corresponding brilliant tenure of Sfondrati women (1565-90) who placed the convent at the center of their "family's complex political business" (116) which included the election of an uncle, Niccolo Sfondrati, as Pope Gregory XIV in 1590.