Counteroffensive


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Counteroffensive

 

a special type of offensive, operational or strategic in scope, with the objective of routing an advancing enemy who has been weakened in preceding battles against defending forces.

Unlike the conventional offensive, preparations for the counteroffensive are made in the course of defensive battle. The history of the art of war gives many examples where a counteroffensive grew into a general offensive of all the forces of the defending troops and achieved major strategic objectives. During the Civil War and military intervention of 1918–20 it was in the course of a counteroffensive that the forces of the Red Army routed the counterrevolutionary troops of A. V. Kolchak (1919), N. N. ludenich (1919), and A. I. Denikin (1919) and the army of bourgeois-landowner Poland (1920). During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 the outstanding examples of counteroffensives by Soviet troops were the counteroffensives during the battles of Moscow (1941–42), Stalingrad (1942–43), and Kursk (1943). In all these operations the counterofl’ensive ended with the defeat of the enemy, and in each case the Soviet forces switched to a general offensive.

N. N. FOMIN

References in periodicals archive ?
After an introductory chapter that outlines events up to September 1942 and introduces key personalities, chapters move between the fighting in different parts of the city during the period concerned until the start of the Soviet counteroffensive, Operation "Uranus," on 19 November 1942.
Liu has just returned from a visit to Darfur where he said the security situation has deteriorated in recent weeks, with government-backed forces engaged in a counteroffensive against rebel positions.
It's unbelievable," said Army Sgt Mac Jarbis, who is leading the military's counteroffensive.
THE recent counteroffensive launched against Taliban forces in southern Afghanistan had achieved two-thirds of its goals, Nato said yesterday.
This is how we want to envision the men and women of United Flight 93--their terror distilling into resolution, then being catalyzed into a counteroffensive that defeated the beasts in human form who intended to turn their airliner into a weapon of mass destruction.
Wal-Mart officials mounted a vigorous counteroffensive, arguing that the garage paid competitive wages and did not need a union.
Richard Bailey saw action at Guadalcanal - the site of the first American counteroffensive against the Japanese 63 years ago.
While the counteroffensive failed to stem the rise of the BSCP in the 1920s, Pullman workers remained hopelessly divided.
Instead of going on the counteroffensive, the company published on its website Paxil's data from clinical trials.
It has begun a PR counteroffensive, cranking out positive advertisements and sensitive new policy announcements.
On that occasion Luschino donned armor, organized a barrage of tiles from the convent's roof, and was about to lead a counteroffensive when Savonarola persuaded him to put down his weapons.
On the assumption that enemy bombers would always get through, the RAF placed the weight of its defense on bombers to launch a counteroffensive against the enemy, since fighters would generally be unable to break up self-defending enemy bomber formations--curious assumptions not validated by World War I experience.