county

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county

[Fr., comté,=domain of a count], division of local governmentlocal government,
political administration of the smallest subdivisions of a country's territory and population. Characteristics and Types

Although there are special-purpose local government bodies (e.g.
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 in the United States, Great Britain, and many Commonwealth countries. The county developed in England from the shire, a unit of local government that originated in the Saxon settlements of the 5th cent. By the 11th cent. the shire system was fully established throughout most of England, with each shire being ruled by a shire-reeve, or sheriff, appointed by the crown. By the 14th cent. the office of justice of the peace had developed; in each county a court of three or four justices, also appointed by the king, assisted the sheriff in the administration of local affairs. With the passage of the Local Government Act of 1888, power passed from the king's appointed officials to the newly created county councils, elected by local residents. The county system of government was adopted in most of the nations settled by the British.

In the United States there are some 3,100 counties (254 in Texas alone); most are rural or suburban, but except where, as in Virginia, a city may be independent (not part of a county), every part of a state is also part of a county. Some cities, like New York (where the five boroughs are also counties) comprise more than one county. Louisiana, influenced by the French, has instead parishes, which are essentially similar to counties; Alaska has boroughs. The major functions of county government in the United States include law enforcement, the recording of deeds and other documents, and the provision and maintenance of public works such as roads and parks. Some states, though, notably Connecticut, have abolished almost all county governmental functions.

Bibliography

See H. S. Duncombe, County Government in America (1966); J. C. Bollens, American County Government (1969).

County

 

(1) In the feudal period, a hereditary feudal possession headed by a count.

(2) An administrative-territorial unit in several bourgeois countries. In the USA, 47 states are divided into counties (a total of more than 3,000 counties). Counties are governed by elected county councils. In Great Britain there are administrative counties and county boroughs. The administration of counties is directed by elected councils, including so-called aldermen, who are co-opted by the council. The administration of counties also includes representatives of the central government—for example, the lord lieutenant and sheriff. The Australian Commonwealth, some Canadian provinces, and New Zealand also have counties.

B. S. KRYLOV

county

1. 
a. any of the administrative or geographic subdivisions of certain states, esp any of the major units into which England and Wales are or have been divided for purposes of local government
b. (as modifier): county cricket
2. NZ an electoral division in a rural area
3. Obsolete the lands under the jurisdiction of a count or earl
References in periodicals archive ?
If enacted, regional county municipalities and the agglomerations would have maintained their role with regard to land-use and the responsibility of the regional framework plans, whereas the CMM would have been responsible for the development of a new planning tool at the metropolitan scale, distinct and complementary to the regional county municipality framework plans and having an impact on the competitiveness and attractiveness factors related to land-use.
Boralex") and Temiscouata Regional County Municipality ("RCM") have closed a $64.
Located one block from the train station in the historic Union County municipality, the $16 million Cranford Crossing will feature approximately 22,000 square feet of ground-floor retail space and 50 luxury, for-sale condominium homes, in three- and four-story buildings.
For its ISO Loi project, which will develop a crime prevention guide for the Regional County Municipality of Acton in concert with counsellors who work with young people aged 9 to 15.
Many turbine components will be manufactured and assembled in Gaspesie, Iles-de-la-Madeleine and the Regional County Municipality of Matane, as required by the 1,000 MW Call for Tenders issued by Hydro-Quebec Distribution.
Total quantity or scope: Fuel Purchase Tukuma county municipality in accordance with the technical specifications.
Boralex intends to develop this project in the Temiscouata Regional County Municipality (RCM) in Quebec.
Lakewood is, in fact, the only Ocean county municipality to receive a UEZ designation, and its 2,200 acres of industrial parks, housing more than 300 businesses, comprise the second largest municipal industrial complex in the state.
In conjunction with the Regional County Municipality of Matapedia local co-ordinating committee on conjugal and family violence, the organization will prepare an overview of violence in relationships between male and female students.
A plan to downgrade Norway's Aro airport from one of the main airports to a regional airport has not been accepted by Ole Overland, the chairman of the county municipality, nor Rolf Myhre, chairman at Molde airport.
Contract notice: For road transport fuel and car accessories supply limba u county municipality.