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one of the ways of training and raising the qualifications of workers for production and management, science, culture, education, public health, and public services. Courses prepare people primarily for occupations and fields of specialization at the lower levels, where long periods of training or, in some cases, completion of education are not required, for example, workers in common occupations. Courses are also organized for instruction in various skills such as stenography, typing, and sewing, for teaching foreign languages, and for preparing persons for enrollment in educational institutions. Courses for raising the qualifications of specialists in various sectors of the national economy have become popular.

Courses may be given regularly or only once. The length of study depends on the aims and content of the course, for example, courses training industrial workers generally last six months. Courses are organized at enterprises, establishments, institutions, schools, and institutes for the advanced training of specialists by ministries, governmental departments, and other agencies, which also supervise the courses. They are closely regulated by rules and laws. Those wishing to enroll must meet certain educational, age, and health requirements. As a rule, instruction is free, and students attending day courses either receive a stipend or are paid the equivalent of their most recent wages. Graduates of courses are usually guaranteed work and have the right to transfer to the occupations for which they have been trained. They become eligible for promotion and higher salaries, as indicated by a certificate or a notation in their work book.

In the USSR in 1971, 17.8 million industrial and office workers (at enterprises, institutions, and establishments) and about 1.6 million collective-farm workers (at the farms) either acquired a new specialization or improved their qualifications through the system of course training.

Workers in many other countries also receive occupational training and improve their qualifications by enrolling in courses.


References in classic literature ?
In the course of the day, they came to a height that commanded an almost boundless prospect.
The travellers continued their course to the south of west for about forty miles, through a region so elevated that patches of snow lay on the highest summits and on the northern declivities.
On the 17th they continued down the course of the river, making fifteen miles to the southwest.
Wyeth travelled for a considerable distance to the southwest, in company with Milton Sublette, when they separated; and the former, with eleven men, the remnant of his band, pushed on for Snake River; kept down the course of that eventful stream; traversed the Blue Mountains, trapping beaver occasionally by the way, and finally, after hardships of all kinds, arrived, on the 29th of October, at Vancouver, on the Columbia, the main factory of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Campbell had met with a disaster in the course of their route from the Sweet Water.
She had answered it the day before, and she had said she would take the child, of course.
She was glad, of course, that she was a good woman, and that she not only knew her duty, but had sufficient strength of character to perform it.
I am, of course, quite ready to add my efforts to yours in such a case," said the prince, rising; "but I confess, Lebedeff, that I am terribly perplexed.
Of course, he only lies with the best intentions; still, he lies.
Adventures, of course, as we shall see, were of daily occurrence; but about this time Peter invented, with Wendy's help, a new game that fascinated him enormously, until he suddenly had no more interest in it, which, as you have been told, was what always happened with his games.
and so on; and they were all redskins; and of course this would have ended the fight had not the real redskins fascinated by Peter's methods, agreed to be lost boys for that once, and so at it they all went again, more fiercely than ever.
Of course you know already--about May and me," he said, answering her look with a shy laugh.