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one of the ways of training and raising the qualifications of workers for production and management, science, culture, education, public health, and public services. Courses prepare people primarily for occupations and fields of specialization at the lower levels, where long periods of training or, in some cases, completion of education are not required, for example, workers in common occupations. Courses are also organized for instruction in various skills such as stenography, typing, and sewing, for teaching foreign languages, and for preparing persons for enrollment in educational institutions. Courses for raising the qualifications of specialists in various sectors of the national economy have become popular.

Courses may be given regularly or only once. The length of study depends on the aims and content of the course, for example, courses training industrial workers generally last six months. Courses are organized at enterprises, establishments, institutions, schools, and institutes for the advanced training of specialists by ministries, governmental departments, and other agencies, which also supervise the courses. They are closely regulated by rules and laws. Those wishing to enroll must meet certain educational, age, and health requirements. As a rule, instruction is free, and students attending day courses either receive a stipend or are paid the equivalent of their most recent wages. Graduates of courses are usually guaranteed work and have the right to transfer to the occupations for which they have been trained. They become eligible for promotion and higher salaries, as indicated by a certificate or a notation in their work book.

In the USSR in 1971, 17.8 million industrial and office workers (at enterprises, institutions, and establishments) and about 1.6 million collective-farm workers (at the farms) either acquired a new specialization or improved their qualifications through the system of course training.

Workers in many other countries also receive occupational training and improve their qualifications by enrolling in courses.


References in periodicals archive ?
Some participants indicated that their courses were not integrated with enough collaborative activities, and the instructors were not responsive and involved in class all the time.
The National Education Association reported 73 percent of NEA members who taught online courses were compensated as part of their normal courseload.
This provokes me to suspect that there is something wrong with seeing courses as being in theology or religion.
This links-style course opened in 1993 near Sierra Nevada, making it easy to play both courses in the same day.
Sections and camps are needed to host the Outdoor Living Skills Program Leaders and Instructors courses, particularly this coming spring.
Most of the students enrolled in online courses at WSU live in the local area but choose online education for reasons other than distance.
Since its June 2003 opening, Parry Sound's Seguin Valley Golf and Country Club has drawn rave reviews as one the best new courses in Ontario.
Eastern Michigan University's Coatings Research Institute will hold several short courses throughout the fall.
300 hours of approved continuing education courses and/or activities of which a minimum of 150 hours must be earned in continuing education course credit.
And it's a place where popular and unpopular, gifted and at-risk, wealthy and poor take courses together as welt as share stories and relate to each other's woes and wonders.
Perhaps because of the US GA's and PGA's efforts to move some of their major championships away from private clubs toward top public venues such as Bethpage State Park in Long Island, New York, Bennett is seeing new interest among executives in playing America's finest municipal and resort courses.