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under Soviet law: (1) A decision of a court of original jurisdiction concerning various procedural questions that arise during a criminal or civil case, as well as a decision to terminate a case. (2) Any decision reached by a cassational or supervisory court (with the exception of court presidiums and plenums) to uphold, vacate, or change the judgment or decree of a court of original jurisdiction. (3) A decision ordering compulsory medical measures. (4) A court decision, called a special ruling, by which the attention of appropriate organizations or officials is directed to circumstances that facilitate violation of the law. Rulings are rendered in a conference room or after the judges have conferred on the spot, and they are issued as separate documents or entered in the record of the court session. The law establishes the type of court rulings that may be appealed or protested (for example, art. 331 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR).