(Russian, iasli-sad), in the USSR, a preschool educational establishment for children from two months to seven years of age.
The first crèche-kindergartens were set up in 1959. The crèche-kindergarten provides in a single institution social upbringing for very young children (two months to three years old) and preschool-age children (three to seven years old), preparing them for subsequent instruction in school. Both nine-to 12-hour care and around-the-clock care may be offered. Crèche-kindergartens enable parents with very young and preschool-age children to take part in production, cultural, and social activities. Each age group has separate facilities.
When authorized by executive committees of soviets of people’s deputies, crèche-kindergartens may be opened by public education agencies, enterprises, institutions, sovkhozes, kolkhozes, and other organizations. The administration of the organization opening the crèche-kindergarten supervises the crèche-kindergarten’s economic and financial activities. Regardless of the crèche-kindergarten’s organizational affiliation, pedagogical guidance is given by public education agencies. Preventive medical services are provided by public health agencies. The persons in charge of the preschool-age groups are graduates of preschool pedagogical schools; those in charge of the very young groups are graduates of such schools or of medical schools.
At the end of 1979, there were more than 10.4 million children in 80,000 crèche-kindergartens.
REFERENCESNarodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR: Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola: Sb. dokumentov 1917–1973 gg. Moscow, 1974. Pages 335–40.
Programma vospitaniia v detskom sadu, 8th ed. Moscow, 1978.
Vospitanie i obuchenie v detskom sadu. Edited by A. V. Zaporozhets and T. A. Markova. Moscow, 1976.
V. G. CHERVIAKOVA