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(Russian, kustari; from the German Künstler, “artist”), makers of commercial products who work for the market, as distinct from artisans (remeslenniki), who work on commissions from buyers.

Under the conditions of a capitalist society, craftsmen belong to a stratum of the petite bourgeoisie that is economically dependent on commercial capital. The most prevalent form of exploitation of the craftsmen by commercial capital consists in giving them raw materials to be worked at a set fee. In this case the “buyer-up” (skupshchik) acts as an industrial entrepreneur, the craftsmen becoming hired persons who work in their homes. This form of operation became very widespread in Russia after the reforms of the 1860’s.

The concentration of production and capital led to the crowding out of these domestic crafts and the separation of the craftsmen into various social strata. In the epoch of imperialism and the general crisis of capitalism, the number of craftsmen fell sharply and their material status worsened. V. I. Lenin noted several times that “small-scale masters” receive net incomes that are considerably smaller than the wages of industrial workers. In the USSR and other socialist countries, production cooperatives were established consisting of craftsmen and artisans working together.

References in periodicals archive ?
He stressed the role of craftsmen in boosting economic and social development and called for paying more attention to promote the handicraft sector and encourage its exports to the foreign markets.
The craftsmen who help faire-goers fulfill their fantasies love their work.
The investment by Craftsmen into their new facility is a testament to their dedication to their trailer customers' needs," said Craig Bennett, Senior Vice President Sales and Marketing, Utility Trailer.
During the meeting, the Office's members presented their vision of restructuring the Union, with focus being placed on the significance of the Union's participation in the state's decisions pertaining to craftsmen.
The International Association of Printing House Craftsmen is an organization dedicated to individuals in the printing and graphic arts industry for the purpose of their self-development, their companies' success, and the enhancement of the printing and graphic arts industry in society.
PACI is keen on consolidation of competition level in so far as preparation and organization are concerned and providing the highest levels of transparency, credibility and neutrality to level up to the honouring it has gained because it carries the name of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said, which reflects His Majesty's attention for cultural and nationalistic values for craft works and affirms His Majesty's lofty care for Omani craftsmen to spur their capabilities and trigger their innovation in order to better craft production and to take it to a technical and aesthetic level that deserves honouring.
Special interactive activities are scheduled throughout the day for home school students and their families including craft classes instructed by Dollywood's master craftsmen.
The Carolina Designer Craftsmen Guild has sponsored a student booth since 2009.
This campaign comes within the PACI's endeavors to encourage the craftsmen for boosting the handicraft work by applying the innovative criterias that take part in realizing the economic, social and cultural development.
8220;We are pleased to appoint Tracy Adams as the show manager for the upcoming year's Fine Designer Crafts Show,” said Elizabeth Lyne, president of the Carolina Designer Craftsmen Guild.
PACI will also honor the distinguished craftsmen as an appreciation to their efforts in preserving the craft traditions.
A partner in Slocum Blatt Advertising of Fleetwood, Blatt has been named to the Pennsylvania Guild of Craftsmen as a Juried Member in the field of woodturning.