conjoined twins

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conjoined twins,

congenitally united organisms that are complete or nearly complete individuals, historically known as Siamese twins. They develop from a single fertilized ovum that has divided imperfectly; complete division would produce identical twins, having the same sex and general characteristics. Conjoined twins remain attached at the abdomen, chest, back, or top of the head, depending on where the division of the ovum has failed. In some instances the individuals are joined only by a band of musculofibrous tissue and can be separated surgically, but in other instances they share vital organs and separation may not be possible. Sometimes an ovum divides in such a way that an organism develops having one body and two heads, or one head and two sets of limbs. About half of all conjoined twins are stillborn, and many die within a week or so of birth. When they do survive, fatal illness in one dooms the other unless separation is possible. The name Siamese twins derives from the most famous of conjoined male twins, Chang and Eng, born in Siam (Thailand) of Chinese parents in 1811. They were exhibited in Barnum's circus for many years; although never separated, they married and fathered a total of 22 children. They died within 2 hours of each other in 1874. See also multiple birthmultiple birth,
bringing forth of more than one offspring at birth. Although many smaller mammals bear several young at a time, multiple births are relatively uncommon in humans and other primates.
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References in periodicals archive ?
We are thrilled to commemorate the 10 year anniversary of one of the first successful staged separations of craniopagus twins in the world, also known as twins joined at the heads.
In choosing a multi-staged separation of craniopagus conjoined twins, ClearView(R) Anatomical Models were crucial to our planning", reports lead craniofacial surgeon Dr.
Dr Benjamin Carson of Maryland, one of the neurosurgeons taking part, has successfully separated three sets of craniopagus twins -siblings born joined at the head.
13 /PRNewswire/ -- Medical Modeling LLC, producer of advanced anatomical modeling services, today praised efforts of the surgical team who successfully separated two year old craniopagus twins Mohamed and Ahmed Ibrahim.
It is the first time that surgeons have tried to separate adult craniopagus twins - siblings born joined at the head - since the procedure was first successfully performed in 1952.
The operation will mark the first time surgeons have tried to separate adult craniopagus twins -siblings born joined at the head -since the operation was first successfully performed in 1952.
Only 2 percent of such births, however, are craniopagus, Latin for ``fixed at the head.
It is the first time surgeons have tried to separate adult craniopagus twins -siblings born joined at the head.
It was the first time surgeons had tried to separate adult craniopagus twins -siblings who a reborn joined at thehead.
Carson was the primary neurosurgeon among the 70-member medical team that successfully separated seven-month-old German craniopagus twin boys ("Siamese Twins").
It was a 28-hour procedure to separate type-2 vertical craniopagus [i.