Creatine


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creatine

[′krē·ə‚tēn]
(biochemistry)
C4H9O2N3α-Methylguanidine-acetic acid; a compound present in vertebrate muscle tissue, principally as phosphocreatine.

Creatine

 

N-methylguanidoacetic acid. Molecular weight, 131.14; melting point, 315°C (with dissociation):

Creatine is soluble in hot water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. The interaction of mineral acids and creatine produces the lactam creatinine. This reaction is the basis of one of the methods used to determine creatine content. Creatine dissociates into urea and methylglycine in an alkaline medium.

Creatine was discovered in 1835 by the French scientist M. Chevreul in extracts from skeletal muscles. It is found in the muscle tissue of all vertebrates (approximately 0.5 percent of the muscle weight) in the form of the unstable creatinephosphoric acid, which takes part in supplying the energy required for muscle contraction. Smaller quantities are present in nerve tissue, blood, liver, and kidneys. Creatine biosynthesis in an organism is achieved in the kidneys from the amino acids glycine and arginine, forming glycocyamine. The glycocyamine undergoes subsequent methylation in the liver in the presence of the amino acid methionine to yield creatine.

N. P. MESHKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
In order to understand how creatine can have such a powerful impact on a wide range of functions within in the body, you have to understand the key role that creatine plays in cellular energy supplies.
Doctors warn that dangers of large amounts of creatine, heavily used by killer Raoul Moat, include depression and irritability or aggression.
Also, the amounts of several phospholipids in myelin were increased by creatine treatment, particularly in the brain stem, suggesting that improved myelination may contribute to the ability of the piglet to avoid the sow when necessary.
In the process, the nuclear magnetization of amine (NH2) creatine protons is saturated by a radiofrequency pulse from the MRI.
It also became clear that hypertrophy of type IIA fibers was largely responsible for the increased muscle mass and that decrease in serum creatine kinase and muscle fibrosis was accompanied by long-term inhibition of myostatin [12].
This supplementation protocol has been used in previous studies in order to maintain elevated creatine levels in muscle (Cooke et al.
We've known for some time that athletes and bodybuilders become stronger after taking supplemental creatine, and now we know that older men and women can benefit too," says Candow.
Preliminary data suggest that creatine and coenzyme [Q.
A couple of the senior players in the team have convinced him to start taking whey protein (analysis: 22 g of protein, 2 g of carbohydrate per serve) and have encouraged him to start using creatine monohydrate (he has not started yet, but was after your advice).
The NIH National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) today is launching a large-scale clinical trial to learn if the nutritional supplement creatine can slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD).
1), a bicarbonate level of 10 mmol/L, and elevation of creatine phosphokinase level to 75 062 U/L.
At a high state of training, muscle glycogen (energy) stores are depleted while levels of creatine kinase are increased.