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C4H9O2N3α-Methylguanidine-acetic acid; a compound present in vertebrate muscle tissue, principally as phosphocreatine.



N-methylguanidoacetic acid. Molecular weight, 131.14; melting point, 315°C (with dissociation):

Creatine is soluble in hot water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. The interaction of mineral acids and creatine produces the lactam creatinine. This reaction is the basis of one of the methods used to determine creatine content. Creatine dissociates into urea and methylglycine in an alkaline medium.

Creatine was discovered in 1835 by the French scientist M. Chevreul in extracts from skeletal muscles. It is found in the muscle tissue of all vertebrates (approximately 0.5 percent of the muscle weight) in the form of the unstable creatinephosphoric acid, which takes part in supplying the energy required for muscle contraction. Smaller quantities are present in nerve tissue, blood, liver, and kidneys. Creatine biosynthesis in an organism is achieved in the kidneys from the amino acids glycine and arginine, forming glycocyamine. The glycocyamine undergoes subsequent methylation in the liver in the presence of the amino acid methionine to yield creatine.


References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of interleukin 18 (IL-18) in serum revealed a trend of decreasing IL-18 concentrations with an increase of creatine monohydrate in diet but this difference in IL-18 concentration between the treatments was statistically non significant (P = 0.
17) The protocol for loading creatine in this study was four to six doses of 5 g of creatine monohydrate per day for five days to saturate muscle creatine stores and increase concentrations by 20%.
Effect of oral creatine monohydrate and creatine phosphate supplementation on maximal strength indices, body composition, and blood pressure.
Many athletes claim enhanced performance through use of the amino acid derivative creatine monohydrate, commonly known as creatine.
Creatine Real Muscle Food, a creatine monohydrate product that research has shown promotes muscular energy, enhances lean muscle mass and helps to increase strength and power.
Garvin says he's been taking creatine since he was 15 years old, starting with a creatine monohydrate and later switching to effervescent creatine because "it's more bioavailable and less harsh.
Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold.
The effectis of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate or body composicion and strength.
A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder.
Creatine monohydrate supplementation facilitates phosphocreatine storage and has shown to be most effective in improving high-intensity, repeated bout, sprint performance with a short rest periods (3,10).
Creatine monohydrate is one of the most commonly ingested and researched sports supplements today and is a popular aspect of sports nutrition and ergogenic aids.