creole language

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creole language

(krēōl`), any language that began as a pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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 but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the GullahGullah
, a creole language formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea Islands and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora,
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 of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and the Papiamento of the Netherlands possessions in the West Indies (developed from pidgin Spanish and Portuguese). Similarities among creoles worldwide have led some linguists to speculate that they share a common origin, probably Sabir (see lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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); others attribute the similarities to universal laws governing human language.


See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
In the course of expounding his experiential theory he deals with the issue from a creolisation perspective and arrives et the conclusion that exchange in today's world is not a mere postulate but, indeed, a strong and inevitable challenge:
Wall Plate 3 shows striped beacons, marking a terrain in an arbitrary open manner, one still in the process of definition, perhaps indicating the uncharted space of creolisation which lay ahead.
A Nigerian identity that is self-aware ot its creolisation, rather than maintaining the illusion of a "multi-ethnic" patchwork, would not only be an exciting national project, but truer to the emerging state of affairs.
Creolisation (7) and hybridity are significant as processes in which agency can actively be reclaimed; where the play offers multilayered understandings of a cultural heritage and identity--one that highlights hidden histories and silent stories of 'Coloured' women--it is their reconceptualisation of a previously disavowed identity.
In The Madonna of Excelsior (2002) the slippages, counter-discourse and creolisation are constellated in Mda's handling of the issues of race.
As increasingly recognised in historical linguistics, and studies of creolisation, the processes of borrowing and influence between different speech communities are numerous and dynamic (Croft 2000; Mufwene 2001; Chaudenson 2001; Thomason 2001), and we should expect a similar range of dynamics involved in the development and adoption of many aspects of cultural traditions.
This insistence is pertinent to a country where black identities are asked to disappear in the currently fashionable theorisations of creolisation and hybridity.
La problematique de la creolisation represente une preoccupation croissante pour les etudes postcoloniales en raison de la mobilite des ideologies et des identites generees par le colonialisme.
Certains chercheurs parlent de creolisation ; les Black Indians eux-memes font reference aux mariages mixtes dont ils seraient issus.
Over the last few decades, this approach has been replaced with an emphasis on cultural forms of resistance, the creolisation process, and the presence of African continuities.
His Poetique de la relation had already drawn useful distinctions between their notion of creolite (static) and his concept of creolisation (dynamic).