creole language

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creole language

(krēōl`), any language that began as a pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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 but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the GullahGullah
, a creole language formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea Islands and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora,
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 of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and the Papiamento of the Netherlands possessions in the West Indies (developed from pidgin Spanish and Portuguese). Similarities among creoles worldwide have led some linguists to speculate that they share a common origin, probably Sabir (see lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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); others attribute the similarities to universal laws governing human language.


See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Among all contact outcomes, creolization is a strong concept.
White Teeth can be thought of as an allegorical novel since major characters are placed into exaggerated categories of assimilation and creolization.
Brathwaite highlights the African elements retained via creolization through the rhythm of his persona.
Creolization is best thought of as the product of cultural mixing that began within the tropical, colonial, plantation milieu and continues to the present.
We may recognize Eleggua in the "unstoppable conjunctions" that mark for Edouard Glissant the process of creolization and "the damnation of those who fight it.
The creolization process on an island like Martinique required the contribution of both the Maroon who refused the servile condition on the plantation and the slave whose provision ground on the margin of the plantation modified those very conditions.
Gurudeva's politics is, thus, a form of creolization repulsive to his son.
Those legacies are the material witnesses of what Edouard Glissant calls the "concealed parallel of histories" in the Americas and yet they are also witnesses to the creolization of slavery itself; that is, they bear witness to the Americanization of fears of racial contamination, of racial injustice, and other one-time colonial sins.
The relation between the linguistic processes of pidginization and creolization has been stated as one between reduction and expansion (perhaps first explicitly by Hymes 1971: 84;(2) see also Muhlhausler 1974).
We are not sure whether these sodalities were eager to be exclusively "Angolan" or not, but whatever the case, the strong representation of crioulos on the governing body certainly suggests that the successful establishment of the oldest black sodalities near the end of the seventeenth century had something to do with the creolization of the urban slave population.
Specific topics include theoretical and pedagogical implications of the teaching of African literature in the UK, transcultural outlooks in The Buddha of Suburbia and Some Kind of Black, the politics of creolization in Austin Clarke's Pigtails 'n Breadfruit, spatial linearity and postcolonial parody in Murray Bail's Holden's Performance, mall and female spaces in Things Fall Apart, the question of political engagement and Michael Ondaatje's historiographic metafiction, carnival and drama in the Anglophone Caribbean, and identity and issues of language choice in Malta.