creole language

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Related to Creolized: creolized language, creole

creole language

(krēōl`), any language that began as a pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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 but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the GullahGullah
, a creole language formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea Islands and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora,
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 of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and the Papiamento of the Netherlands possessions in the West Indies (developed from pidgin Spanish and Portuguese). Similarities among creoles worldwide have led some linguists to speculate that they share a common origin, probably Sabir (see lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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); others attribute the similarities to universal laws governing human language.


See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Accordingly, any attempt at demonstrating that his writings exemplify both the will to dismantle philosophy as system and the praxis of a creolized worldview ought to consider the formidable creativity which, throughout his oeuvre, animates his langage within the French langue.
The characters are creolized like the fluid identities of migrants in the sense that the multiple layers of their identities show through in different contexts in ever changing combinations.
Turning to the history of American patois, namely "the deformations which English, French and Spanish words underwent in America, as in the case of Creole French or Mauritius, Guyana, Martinique, Hayd, Louisiana, and Colonial Spanish," Jolas describes the aesthetic potential of the creolized languages: "The fusion of components that ordinarily have no relation with each other is a process that has as a premise the unconscious movements within us.
New World ethnographers like Boas and Hurston struggled in particularly difficult ways with this inevitable bifurcation, as they straddled competing cultural desires in their own immigrant or creolized bodies, and rehearsed the impossibility of authentic cultural representation, even as they demanded and depended upon the presumed authenticity of their cultural investigations.
The poetic word is, above all, a creolized word, a complex juncture of oral and written language.
Berruto (1993) points out problems with the image of the linguistic continuum (similar to a linguistic spectrum), and he cautions that there are no intermediate, hybrid or creolized languages formed from a mixture of Italian and dialect.
14) As such, American identity is not a positive, productive, dynamic, dialectical, self-contradictory, unpredictable creolized identity ("identity" understood as a cultural or communal self-image), as Glissant envisions it, but, on the contrary, a homogeneous, conformist, commodified identity that works against contradiction, against the ideal of a "chaotic" but nonetheless culturally productive world-totality.
This transformation was categorically tied to connecting with, studying, and publishing about the creolized African practices found throughout Dominican society, particularly in lower-class barrios surrounding the capital city.
Ammons, Betty Adcock, Charles Wright, Judy Jordan, Kate Daniels), the field should expand to heed the call of poets of color, hailing from notably creolized cultures, including Yusef Komunyakaa, Brenda Marie Osbey, Kwame Dawes, Harryette Mullen, Allison Hedge Coke, and Virgil Suarez.
I wondered whether the sashes that most of these New York dolls wore around their waists--whether or not they were stuffed or prepared in any way at all--might still echo, structurally, the cords and ribbons formerly used to bind spirits into the Kongo-derived and creolized African, Haitian, and Afro-Cuban minkisi figures that Thompson discusses.
However, it would be more telling to the reader to point out the significance of Kimbisa as one of the earliest examples of a creolized religious practice in Cuba that specifically sought to document the integration of white Cubans into an Afro-Cuban religious community as part of its folklore, rites and oral history (See Cabrera 1986).
By virtue of its ingredients, vatapa the dish, and thus the song, acknowledges and condones the theory associated with Gilberto Freyre, of a creolized racial democracy constituted by successive generations of African, Indigenous, and Portuguese couplings.