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Croesus(krē`səs), d. c.547 B.C., king of Lydia (560–c.547 B.C.), noted for his great wealth. He was the son of Alyattes. He continued his father's policy of conquering the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, but on the whole he was friendly to the Greeks, and he is supposed to have given refuge to the Athenian statesman Solon. Threatened by Cyrus the GreatCyrus the Great
, d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus, he was the son of an Iranian noble, the elder Cambyses, and a Median princess, daughter of Astyages.
..... Click the link for more information. of Persia, Croesus allied himself with Amasis II of Egypt and Nabonidus of Babylonia against the Persian might, but the alliance was of no avail. Cyrus defeated and captured Croesus, and, according to Herodotus, Croesus cast himself upon a funeral pyre.
Born 595 B.C.; died 546 B.C. Last ruler of Lydia, governing from 560 to 546.
Croesus expanded significantly the territory of the Kingdom of Lydia; he brought under his authority the Greek towns of Asia Minor (Ephesus, Miletus, and others) and conquered almost all of the western part of Asia Minor up to the Halys River. His wealth became proverbial, and many legends were created about him. Croesus was a Hellenophile; he sent generous gifts to Greek temples (Delphi and Ephesus) and sought to adapt Lydia to Greek culture. In a war with the Persian ruler Cyrus II he was defeated at Pteria (Cappadocia); the capital of Lydia, Sardis, was seized, and Croesus was taken prisoner (546). According to one version (Herodotus and the majority of ancient Greek historians), he was sentenced to be burned to death but was pardoned by Cyrus; according to another version (ancient Eastern cuneiform sources), he was executed.