Croix de Feu


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Croix de Feu

 

a militarized fascist organization in France during the period between the two world wars.

The Croix de Feu arose in late 1927 as an association of former frontline soldiers who had been awarded combat orders. It was financed by the reactionary perfume manufacturer F. Coty. The leader of the organization, Colonel F. de La Rocque, advocated the reconstruction of the state in an authoritarian spirit and advanced demagogic demands for social reform. The Croix de Feu had a strong, militarized organizational structure; it took an active part in the attempted fascist putsch in February 1934. It had a number of branches, including the National Volunteers and the Sons of the Croix de Feu. Dissolved by the Popular Front government’s decree of June 18, 1936, the organization was converted on July 11 into the French Social Party, which ceased to exist during World War II.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Design and implementation of a nursery school 312 students, an elementary school 576 students and a gym with development of its surroundings, the site at Rue Croix de Feu in 1120 Brussels.
During his teenage years, as a volunteer for right-wing league Croix de Feu, he was involved in a Paris skirmish with Communists.
2) Lyautey's lofty sense of political and moral purpose, contempt for money, and selfless anti-communist patriotism would later be embodied, for Mitterrand, by the war veterans in the Croix de Feu of Colonel Francois de la Rocque.
Mitterrand recognized the selfishness and narrow-mindedness of many of the conservatives among whom he grew up, but when the great national crisis came in 1940, he kept to his old friends of the Croix de Feu, and of the tough, clandestine, anti-communist cagoule organization.
After participating invarious marginal meetings of dissidents, they failed to capture Colonel de La Rocque's Croix de Feu.
The Extreme Right in Interwar France: The Faisceau and the Croix de Feu, by Samuel Kalman.
Kalman elucidates the doctrines of Georges Valois's Faisceau movement, which was active during the mid-to-late 1920s, as well as those of Francois de La Rocque's Croix de Feu and Parti Social Francais (PSF), which reached the peak of their influence a decade later.
The Croix de Feu and PSF were much larger than the Faisceau.
Rejecting the view that the Croix de Feu was a Catholic, elitist, and legalistic movement, Passmore suggests that La Rocque defined legality on his own terms and that the Croix de Feu was essentially populist.
Originally an antiparliamentary league, the Croix de Feu transformed itself into a political party, the Parti Social Francais (P.
Milza emphasizes that Croix de Feu paramilitary plans remained a series of mythical projects never concretely undertaken, betraying a sense of caution "tres different du nihilisme guerrier des fascistes.
In fact, from the amount of attention currently aimed at the Croix de Feu it appears likely to become both a test case and a battleground for debates over French fascism.