plant breeding

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plant breeding,

science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural areas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, better nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency. Other goals are adaptation of crops to modern production techniques such as mechanical harvesting and improvement in the market quality of the product.

Traditionally, plant breeders have made genetic changes in crops by using various crossing and selection methods, creating desirable hybridshybrid
, term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see genetics).
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; breeders also now attempt to induce favorable genetic mutationsmutation,
in biology, a sudden, random change in a gene, or unit of hereditary material, that can alter an inheritable characteristic. Most mutations are not beneficial, since any change in the delicate balance of an organism having a high level of adaptation to its environment
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 by the use of ultraviolet light, gamma radiation, or chemicals. With the development of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, plant breeders have increasingly used its techniques to introduce desirable traits (i.e., genes), often from other species, into cultivated plants.

See also breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The proposed technology called "speed breeding", developed by research teams at the John Innes Centre, University of Queensland, and University of Sydney, could shorten plant growth time and accelerate crop breeding and aid research programmes.
Mr Thomas is a dairy farmer's son from Narberth who returned to the county to run Puffin Produce in 2009 following 20 years in agriculture-related roles throughout the UK, including 10 years as a crop breeding research scientist at the Department of Genetics in the University of Cambridge followed by a spell in the agri-food strategy team of the Welsh Development Agency and Welsh Government.
Multiple resistance genes were used in crop breeding strategies to develop high resistance level (Samis et al.
He suggested that the two sides deepen bilateral agricultural cooperation and improve agricultural trade and investment, and encouraged enterprises and scientific institutions of both sides to jointly establish agricultural demonstration parks and facilitate research and exchanges of new technologies in crop breeding.
Maintaining and enhancing the diversity of crop genetic resources is vital to facilitate crop breeding and thereby enhance the resilience of food crop production.
In Brief: Researchers at the University of California-Davis are accelerating crop breeding to keep pace with variable weather and a changing climate.
Akula Ramakrishna is with the Monsanto Crop Breeding Center in India.
The world's seed banks have done an extraordinary job in preserving crop diversity, now they hold the resources that will support both crop breeding for a hotter and drier world and the raw material for ecological restoration.
The announcement, made by the department's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), said the other, Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration (ROOTS), seeks to improve crop breeding for root and soil function to allow for greater carbon storage in plants.
Today, however, no rational young scientist interested in molecular techniques of crop breeding would choose a base in Continental Europe.
The scientist community expressed grave concern at press conference while highlighting the role of NARC in national agricultural development that NARC mediated crop breeding germplasm from international organizations (like CIMMYT, IRRI, ICARDA) and its National Coordinated Programs on Wheat, Rice, Maize, Fodder, Pulses, Oilseeds and Sugar Crops have resulted in continuous evolution of new high-yielding stress-tolerant crop varieties in the country leading to national food security; e.