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in man and certain animals (horses, dogs), a developmental defect in which during intrauterine development a testis fails to descend to its normal position in the scrotum.

The formation of spermatozoa in an undescended testis may be diminished or absent. In man, unilateral cryptorchidism is usually caused by intra-abdominal adhesions, shortening of the ductus deferens, underdevelopment of the internal spermatic artery, or narrowness of the inguinal canal. Bilateral cryptorchidism is usually associated with disturbances of hormonal balance, insufficiency of gonadotropic hormones, or hereditary biological factors. Cryptorchidism is classified as abdominal or inguinal, according to whether the testis is retained in the abdomen or in the inguinal canal. Often the testis descends into the scrotum by the age of ten or 12. Hence, cryptorchidism is observed in only 0.3 percent of adults but in 2–3 percent of children and prepubescents.

Cryptorchidism is treated in children by hormone therapy (pituitary gonadotropic hormone and androgens), accelerating testicular development. Surgery is indicated if this treatment proves unsuccessful.


References in periodicals archive ?
Additional data obtained are as follows: testicular cancer family history was retrieved for fathers and brothers of cases and controls from the cancer registries, and information on diagnosis and/or surgery of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and inguinal hernia in cases and controls was extracted from the Medical Birth Registry and the Hospital Discharge Registry, as well as for Finland, from the registry of congenital malformations.
2,3,4) Because of its association with other urinary tract abnormalities, cryptorchidism is thought to be one manifestation of a generalised defect in genitourinary embryogenesis.
3, 10) Park et al reviewed 1,235 patients with cryptorchidism and found no testicles descended after 6 months of age, and they concluded that resolution rarely occurs after 6 months of age.
Upon cryptorchidism induction in the first week, there were also no significant differences in left testicular weights between the control group and the treatment group.
Then a scrotal ultrasonography was undertaken and it confirmed cryptorchidism of right testis located at the level of right internal inguinal ring and the suspected diagnosis of agenesis of the right epididymis.
Hypospadias is the second most common congenital abnormality after cryptorchidism in men [2].
He was healthy and strong, but had a right cryptorchidism and a luxation of the left upper arm.
Key Words: Undescended testis, cryptorchidism, orchidopexy, laparoscopy.