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in man and certain animals (horses, dogs), a developmental defect in which during intrauterine development a testis fails to descend to its normal position in the scrotum.

The formation of spermatozoa in an undescended testis may be diminished or absent. In man, unilateral cryptorchidism is usually caused by intra-abdominal adhesions, shortening of the ductus deferens, underdevelopment of the internal spermatic artery, or narrowness of the inguinal canal. Bilateral cryptorchidism is usually associated with disturbances of hormonal balance, insufficiency of gonadotropic hormones, or hereditary biological factors. Cryptorchidism is classified as abdominal or inguinal, according to whether the testis is retained in the abdomen or in the inguinal canal. Often the testis descends into the scrotum by the age of ten or 12. Hence, cryptorchidism is observed in only 0.3 percent of adults but in 2–3 percent of children and prepubescents.

Cryptorchidism is treated in children by hormone therapy (pituitary gonadotropic hormone and androgens), accelerating testicular development. Surgery is indicated if this treatment proves unsuccessful.


References in periodicals archive ?
RESULTS: The quartile-specific ORs for cryptorchidism or hypospadias show no notable associations with trans-nonachlor or oxychlordane.
Cryptorchidism at birth in Nice area (France) is associated with higher prenatal exposure to PCBs and DDE, as assessed by colostrum concentrations.
Impact of anatomical and socioeconomic factors on timing of uroiogical consultation for boys with cryptorchidism.
Hence, surgeons dealing with inguinal hernia should suspect PMDS in the case of adult bilateral cryptorchidism.
Cryptorchidism and testis cancer: atypical infantile germ cells followed by carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma in adulthood.
alpha]-Tocopherol (vitamin E) attenuates the testicular toxicity associated with experimental cryptorchidism in rats.
Xenoestrogens have also been linked to increased incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in men (Gill et al.
Other effects include cryptorchidism (Weedner, Moller, Jensen, & Skekkebek, 1996), oral-facial clefts (Nurminen, 1995), and limb deformities in association with other organ system anomalies (Lin, Marshall, & Davidson, 1994).
Cryptorchidism is associated with AHC (11-15) and therefore may also be observed in complex GK deficiency in patients in whom the deletion involves NROB1.
The full subtitle is Basic consumer health information about urogenital and sexual disorders in men, including prostate and other andrological cancers, prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, testicular and penile trauma, cryptorchidism, peyronie disease, erectile dysfunction, and male factor infertility; and facts about commonly used tests and procedures, such as prostatectomy, vasectomy, vasectomy reversal, penile implants, and semen analysis; along with a glossary of andrological terms and a directory of resources for additional information.
We also looked for the presence of risk factors, such as a history of trauma, torsion, cryptorchidism, vasectomy or vasectomy reversal, genitourinary infection, or previous inguinal surgery.