In some cases they seem to arise as continuous spines with the overgrowing ctenoid scale
main body (Fig.
Bryaninops earlei differs from all congeners in having large ctenoid scales
(22-25 in longitudinal series); it is similar to B.
Burdak (1979) discussed the dynamics of cycloid and ctenoid scales
in squamations of the leaping mullet Liza (= Mugit) saliens (Risso).
Larvae of northern sculpin have 35-36 myomeres, pelvic fins with one spine and two rays, a bony preopercular shelf, four preopercular spines, 3-14 irregular postanal ventral melanophores, few, if any, melanophores ventrally on the gut, and in larger specimens, two rows of ctenoid scales
directly beneath the dorsal fins extending onto the caudal peduncle.
Diagnosis: Minute stout-bodied eleotrids with large ctenoid scales
confined to posterior three-quarters of body (commencing after end of first dorsal fin but before origin of second dorsal fin), and no cycloid scales; head and body anterior to origin of second dorsal fin scaleless.
The introduction of scanning electron microscopy allowed its use for detailed study of fish scales, such as that by Roberts (1993) on ctenoid scales
of Teleostei, revealing their microstructure and variety.
In tetras, important characters such as ctenoid scales
, incomplete lateral line, naked predorsal line etc.
They found that, despite superficial similarities, the ctenial spines on the ctenoid scales
of the cichlid Cichlasoma have a laminated construction and develop from the external layer of the elasmoid scale, whereas the dermal denticles on the head of the clupeomorph Denticeps have pulp cavities and develop like oral teeth.
Antilligobius is most similar morphologically to Bollmannia and Parrella, sharing with those genera the presence of scales on the breast, belly, pectoral fin base and predominately ctenoid scales
on the trunk.
Diagnosis: Trimma cheni has 8-9 scales in the predorsal midline, a row of 2-3 usually ctenoid scales
along the upper border of the opercle, no cheek scales, a dark basal stripe in the dorsal fins, an elongate second dorsal spine reaching posteriorly to the bases of rays 1-4 of the second dorsal fin, the middle rays of the pectoral fin branched, a fifth pelvic fin ray which branches once dichotomously, the basal membrane connecting the inner margins of the fifth pelvic fins rays is less than 15% the length of the fifth ray, the scale pockets are not distinctly outlined with darker pigment, and, in life, there are two red to orange bars across the cheek and three diffuse yellow stripes on the body (most obvious along the caudal peduncle).
strigilliceps complex is distinctive in having transverse rows of mandibular papillae and ctenoid scales
on the body; the C.
Scales absent from dorsal, anal, pelvic and pectoral fins; narrow basal band of ctenoid scales
on caudal fin, up to about 1/4 of fin length.